Aktionen

9.4. Row Building

Aus Pattern Language Wiki

(Weitergeleitet von Row Building)

On the Perimeter Block, provide attached buildings on Small Plots.


09 4 01 Row Building.jpg


Problem-statement: It is economical and often beneficial to attach smaller buildings that are legally and physically separate, and line them in a row on the street. But this form of construction also introduces a number of challenges.


❖ ❖ ❖


Discussion:Row buildings (including rowhouses and other attached buildings) are buildings that are constructed in a row along the street, but at different times by different owners. There are important advantages to this kind of development, including the ability to support finer-grained, better-adapted structures. Another important benefit is the typically greater variety and complexity of the streetscape. Even when a single “master planned” structure is designed as a composition of separate buildings, it almost never reaches the same level of informal variety and beauty. Indeed, many of the most beautiful streetscapes in the world were built in this way.


However, the process of constructing independent but attached buildings introduces many challenges. At any time, one of the houses may be removed or a new house or part of a house added, meaning that the adjoining houses have to maintain wholly independent side wall structures. Moreover, the construction process has to be coordinated with regard to impacts on adjoining buildings, including shared flashings and other elements. That means the owners need to be bound by an agreement or regulation that specifies how these independent construction activities will be managed so as to minimize problems for adjacent buildings.


Let us suppose that two adjacent plot owners are under an agreement to build attached buildings, but their plans are not standardized. One unit may be taller than another, or wider than another. Furthermore, one party may make changes later that will expose parts of the other’s wall. In each case, care must be taken to protect the separate buildings from damage by water, fire and other dangers. This requires that a number of steps be taken to protect each side:


There is another serious problem for many row buildings, which is the amount of natural light that enters the building. The narrower and deeper the building, the less light will enter its interior (except by skylights and light wells, which are of limited benefit). One solution is to jog either the front or back wall of the building, to create an “L” shape. Another solution is to create small courtyards or light wells that bring light into the interior. A third solution, and the simplest, is to keep the depth of the building quite shallow, while the width is greater — at least 6 meters or 20 feet, or wider.¹


09 4 02 Row Building.jpg
The beautiful row buildings of Amsterdam, often with radically different heights and volumes. Photo: Filip Maljković via Wikimedia Commons.


❖ ❖ ❖


Therefore:

Make row buildings wide and shallow, and provide natural light to the interior with light wells or L-shaped wall jogs as needed.


09 4 03 Row Building.jpg


For residential row buildings, create Row Houses with shallow depth and adequate interior light. Create layers of room like spaces or Place Network along the fronts of the row buildings, and provide Human-Scale Detail. …




Image: Alex Wolo via Unsplash



SECTION I:

PATTERNS OF SCALE


1. REGIONAL PATTERNS

Define the large-scale spatial organization…

1.1. POLYCENTRIC REGION

1.2. BLUE-GREEN NETWORK

1.3. MOBILITY CORRIDOR

1.4. 400M THROUGH STREET NETWORK

2. URBAN PATTERNS

Establish essential urban characteristics…

2.1. WALKABLE MULTI-MOBILITY

2.2. LEVEL CITY

2.3. PUBLIC SPACE SYSTEM

2.4. BIOPHILIC URBANISM

3. STREET PATTERNS

Identify and allocate street types…

3.1.URBAN GREENWAY

3.2. MULTI-WAY BOULEVARD

3.3. AVENUE

3.4. SHARED SPACE LANE

4. NEIGHBORHOOD PATTERNS

Define neighborhood-scale elements…

4.1. STREET AS CENTER

4.2. PEDESTRIAN SANCTUARY

4.3. NEIGHBORHOOD SQUARE

4.4. NEIGHBORHOOD PARK

5. SPECIAL USE PATTERNS

Integrate unique urban elements with care…

5.1. SCHOOL CAMPUS

5.2. MARKET CENTER

5.3. INDUSTRIAL AREA

5.4. HOSPITAL

6. PUBLIC SPACE PATTERNS

Establish the character of the crucial public realm…

6.1. PLACE NETWORK

6.2. WALKABLE STREETSCAPE

6.3. MOVABLE SEATING

6.4. CAPILLARY PATHWAY

7. BLOCK AND PLOT PATTERNS

Lay out the detailed structure of property lines…

7.1. SMALL BLOCKS

7.2. PERIMETER BLOCK

7.3. SMALL PLOTS

7.4. MID-BLOCK ALLEY

8. STREETSCAPE PATTERNS

Configure the street as a welcoming place…

8.1. STREET AS ROOM

8.2. TERMINATED VISTA

8.3. STREET TREES

8.4. STREET FURNISHINGS

9. BUILDING PATTERNS

Lay out appropriate urban buildings…

9.1. PERIMETER BUILDING

9.2. ARCADE BUILDING

9.3. COURTYARD BUILDING

9.4. ROW BUILDING

10. BUILDING EDGE PATTERNS

Create interior and exterior connectivity…

10.1. INDOOR-OUTDOOR AMBIGUITY

10.2. CIRCULATION NETWORK

10.3. LAYERED ZONES

10.4. PASSAGEWAY VIEW



SECTION II:

PATTERNS OF MULTIPLE SCALE


11. GEOMETRIC PATTERNS

Build in coherent geometries at all scales…

11.1. LOCAL SYMMETRY

11.2. SMALL GROUPS OF ELEMENTS

11.3. FRACTAL PATTERN

11.4. FRAMING

12. AFFORDANCE PATTERNS

Build in user capacity to shape the environment…

12.1. HANDLES

12.2. CO-PRODUCTION

12.3. FRIENDLY SURFACES

12.4. MALLEABILITY

13. RETROFIT PATTERNS

Revitalize and improve existing urban assets …

13.1. SLUM UPGRADE

13.2. SPRAWL RETROFIT

13.3. URBAN REGENERATION

13.4. URBAN CONSOLIDATION

14. INFORMAL GROWTH PATTERNS

Accommodate “bottom-up” urban growth…

14.1. LAND TENURE

14.2. UTILITIES FIRST

14.3. DATA WITH THE PEOPLE

14.4. INCREMENTAL SELF-BUILD

15. CONSTRUCTION PATTERNS

Use the building process to enrich the result…

15.1. DESIGN-BUILD ADAPTATION

15.2. HUMAN-SCALE DETAIL

15.3. CONSTRUCTION ORNAMENT

15.4. COMPLEX MATERIALS



SECTION III:

PATTERNS OF PROCESS


16. IMPLEMENTATION TOOL PATTERNS

Use tools to achieve successful results…

16.1. FORM-BASED CODE

16.2. ENTITLEMENT STREAMLINING

16.3. NEIGHBORHOOD PLANNING CENTER

16.4. COMMUNITY MOCKUP

17. PROJECT ECONOMICS PATTERNS

Create flows of money that support urban quality…

17.1. TAX-INCREMENT FINANCING

17.2. LAND VALUE CAPTURE

17.3. EXTERNALITY VALUATION

17.4. ECONOMIES OF PLACE AND DIFFERENTIATION

18. PLACE GOVERNANCE PATTERNS

Processes for making and managing places…

18.1. SUBSIDIARITY

18.2. POLYCENTRIC GOVERNANCE

18.3. PUBLIC-PRIVATE PLACE MANAGEMENT

18.4. INFORMAL STEWARDSHIP

19. AFFORDABILITY PATTERNS

Build in affordability for all incomes…

19.1. INTEGRATED AFFORDABILITY

19.2. COMMUNITY LAND TRUST

19.3. MULTI-FAMILY INFILL

19.4. SPECULATION TAX

20. NEW TECHNOLOGY PATTERNS

Integrate new systems without damaging old ones…

20.1. SMART AV SYSTEM

20.2. RESPONSIVE TRANSPORTATION NETWORK COMPANY

20.3. AUGMENTED REALITY DESIGN

20.4. CITIZEN DATA