Aktionen

3.1. Urban Greenway

Aus Pattern Language Wiki

(Weitergeleitet von Urban Greenway)

Within the Polycentric Region, provide functional and beautiful pathways for transportation and ecology.


03 1 01 Urban Greenway


Problem-statement: People need human-scaled pathways around their city that offer many different modes of travel including walking and cycling, that are beautiful, ecological and functional, and that link with other modes of travel.


❖ ❖ ❖


Discussion:: Mobility corridors are focused on high-speed inter-urban mobility for vehicles, but they leave out the lower-speed forms of travel for more routine urban trips. The pattern of the urban greenway described here combines generous lanes for walking, biking, surface trams, moderate-speed surface vehicles, and below-grade trains, all linked by periodic intermodal stations. It is thus convenient to travel along an urban greenway corridor to intersect other train stations and transit lines within the region and beyond.


A polycentric region with several urban greenway loops.


Urban greenways can be laid out, in some cases, along existing stream and river corridors to maintain ecological corridors for natural vegetation and wildlife, taking care to protect ecologically sensitive features — for example, placing the more disruptive pathways along the banks above stream corridors.¹ Urban greenways can also be developed out of previous beltways, such as the Ringstrasse in Vienna — seen in the photo at the beginning of this pattern — which was redeveloped from the beltway formed by the old city wall.


03 1 02 Urban Greenway
A polycentric region with several urban greenway loops.


Care must be taken to lay out greenways to optimize both pedestrian safety and ecological viability, which can be difficult. However, a number of investigations have begun to establish strategies and approaches to do so.²


Care must be taken to lay out greenways to optimize both pedestrian safety and ecological viability, which can be difficult. However, a number of investigations have begun to establish strategies and approaches to do so.²


The philosophical basis for this pattern is shared by the pattern Blue-Green Network — namely, that we can creatively combine distinct systems of networks, including ecological and transportation networks. Some networks work relatively well parallel to each other (e.g. walking, biking, trams) whereas others have to cross, with careful control at their intersections (e.g. a bridge over a river or creek).


❖ ❖ ❖


Therefore:

Within the rough 400-meter grid pattern, lay out an urban greenway corridor system at a roughly 1600 meter (1 mile) spacing. Assure that the corridors connect to key nodes of transportation and intermodal travel.


03 1 03 Urban Greenway.jpg


Run each urban greenway adjacent to a Pedestrian Sanctuary that provides housing and other uses.




¹ See for example the greenway corridor system in Singapore, considered a model for other Asian and international cities: Tan, K. W. (2006). A greenway network for Singapore. Landscape and Urban Planning, 76(1-4), 45-66. Available on the Web at http://faratarjome.ir/u/media/shopping_files/store-EN-1458113022-7947.pdf


² See for example Luymes, D. T., & Tamminga, K. (1995). Integrating public safety and use into planning urban greenways. Landscape and Urban Planning, 33(1-3), 391-400.



SECTION I:

PATTERNS OF SCALE


1. REGIONAL PATTERNS

Define the large-scale spatial organization…

1.1. POLYCENTRIC REGION

1.2. BLUE-GREEN NETWORK

1.3. MOBILITY CORRIDOR

1.4. 400M THROUGH STREET NETWORK

2. URBAN PATTERNS

Establish essential urban characteristics…

2.1. WALKABLE MULTI-MOBILITY

2.2. LEVEL CITY

2.3. PUBLIC SPACE SYSTEM

2.4. BIOPHILIC URBANISM

3. STREET PATTERNS

Identify and allocate street types…

3.1.URBAN GREENWAY

3.2. MULTI-WAY BOULEVARD

3.3. AVENUE

3.4. SHARED SPACE LANE

4. NEIGHBORHOOD PATTERNS

Define neighborhood-scale elements…

4.1. STREET AS CENTER

4.2. PEDESTRIAN SANCTUARY

4.3. NEIGHBORHOOD SQUARE

4.4. NEIGHBORHOOD PARK

5. SPECIAL USE PATTERNS

Integrate unique urban elements with care…

5.1. SCHOOL CAMPUS

5.2. MARKET CENTER

5.3. INDUSTRIAL AREA

5.4. HOSPITAL

6. PUBLIC SPACE PATTERNS

Establish the character of the crucial public realm…

6.1. PLACE NETWORK

6.2. WALKABLE STREETSCAPE

6.3. MOVABLE SEATING

6.4. CAPILLARY PATHWAY

7. BLOCK AND PLOT PATTERNS

Lay out the detailed structure of property lines…

7.1. SMALL BLOCKS

7.2. PERIMETER BLOCK

7.3. SMALL PLOTS

7.4. MID-BLOCK ALLEY

8. STREETSCAPE PATTERNS

Configure the street as a welcoming place…

8.1. STREET AS ROOM

8.2. TERMINATED VISTA

8.3. STREET TREES

8.4. STREET FURNISHINGS

9. BUILDING PATTERNS

Lay out appropriate urban buildings…

9.1. PERIMETER BUILDING

9.2. ARCADE BUILDING

9.3. COURTYARD BUILDING

9.4. ROW BUILDING

10. BUILDING EDGE PATTERNS

Create interior and exterior connectivity…

10.1. INDOOR-OUTDOOR AMBIGUITY

10.2. CIRCULATION NETWORK

10.3. LAYERED ZONES

10.4. PASSAGEWAY VIEW



SECTION II:

PATTERNS OF MULTIPLE SCALE


11. GEOMETRIC PATTERNS

Build in coherent geometries at all scales…

11.1. LOCAL SYMMETRY

11.2. SMALL GROUPS OF ELEMENTS

11.3. FRACTAL PATTERN

11.4. FRAMING

12. AFFORDANCE PATTERNS

Build in user capacity to shape the environment…

12.1. HANDLES

12.2. CO-PRODUCTION

12.3. FRIENDLY SURFACES

12.4. MALLEABILITY

13. RETROFIT PATTERNS

Revitalize and improve existing urban assets …

13.1. SLUM UPGRADE

13.2. SPRAWL RETROFIT

13.3. URBAN REGENERATION

13.4. URBAN CONSOLIDATION

14. INFORMAL GROWTH PATTERNS

Accommodate “bottom-up” urban growth…

14.1. LAND TENURE

14.2. UTILITIES FIRST

14.3. DATA WITH THE PEOPLE

14.4. INCREMENTAL SELF-BUILD

15. CONSTRUCTION PATTERNS

Use the building process to enrich the result…

15.1. DESIGN-BUILD ADAPTATION

15.2. HUMAN-SCALE DETAIL

15.3. CONSTRUCTION ORNAMENT

15.4. COMPLEX MATERIALS



SECTION III:

PATTERNS OF PROCESS


16. IMPLEMENTATION TOOL PATTERNS

Use tools to achieve successful results…

16.1. FORM-BASED CODE

16.2. ENTITLEMENT STREAMLINING

16.3. NEIGHBORHOOD PLANNING CENTER

16.4. COMMUNITY MOCKUP

17. PROJECT ECONOMICS PATTERNS

Create flows of money that support urban quality…

17.1. TAX-INCREMENT FINANCING

17.2. LAND VALUE CAPTURE

17.3. EXTERNALITY VALUATION

17.4. ECONOMIES OF PLACE AND DIFFERENTIATION

18. PLACE GOVERNANCE PATTERNS

Processes for making and managing places…

18.1. SUBSIDIARITY

18.2. POLYCENTRIC GOVERNANCE

18.3. PUBLIC-PRIVATE PLACE MANAGEMENT

18.4. INFORMAL STEWARDSHIP

19. AFFORDABILITY PATTERNS

Build in affordability for all incomes…

19.1. INTEGRATED AFFORDABILITY

19.2. COMMUNITY LAND TRUST

19.3. MULTI-FAMILY INFILL

19.4. SPECULATION TAX

20. NEW TECHNOLOGY PATTERNS

Integrate new systems without damaging old ones…

20.1. SMART AV SYSTEM

20.2. RESPONSIVE TRANSPORTATION NETWORK COMPANY

20.3. AUGMENTED REALITY DESIGN

20.4. CITIZEN DATA