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2.1. Walkable Multi-Mobility

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(Weitergeleitet von Walkable Multi-Mobility)

Within the 400M Through Street Network, we need to assure that pedestrians can access all points within and along the network, as well as access other modes of travel. We must assure that pedestrians are not blocked by a Mobility Corridor but have multi-modal access to urban points across the Polycentric Region.


02 01 01Walkable multi-mobility.jpg


Problem-statement: At the start and end of all trips through the city are walking trips. Since the starting point of these trips is indeterminate, it follows that continuous walkability is needed throughout the city, carefully coordinated with other modes of travel.


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Discussion:: For most of human history, the ability to walk between destinations was a key requirement of all cities. But especially in the last half-century, many portions of cities have become unwalkable, often because the design of vehicular facilities has disrupted pedestrian movement. This condition is not sustainable, given the correlation with high rates of resource consumption, depletion, pollution, and other impacts of an unwalkable lifestyle.1,2


The urban characteristic called “walkability” has a number of elementary requirements.³ First, there must be a pathway that is adequate in width. Second, the pathway must be safe from vehicles, both physically (preventing vehicles from accidentally plowing into pedestrians) and psychologically (not bringing a pedestrian close to a fast-moving vehicle). Third, the pathway must be visible enough to discourage crime. Fourth, the pathway must be attractive to walkers, offering places to sit, vegetation, interesting views and other rewards. Finally, the pathway must be well-connected with destinations and with alternate routes, at a maximum distance of 400M or ¼ mile (see 400M Through Street Network, 1.4).


02.1 02 Walkable multi-mobility.jpg
Pervasive walkable multi-mobility in Portland, Oregon.


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Therefore:

Make walkability a pervasive characteristic of the city, with special emphasis on the 400M through street network, and the mixed residential areas within this network. Coordinate the walkable network with other modes of travel, including well-distributed multi-modal hubs for public transit.



Walkable multi-mobility
Walkable multi-mobility


Assure that walking is the dominant mode within each local Pedestrian Sanctuary. Coordinate other modes of travel including Bus Stop, light rail, bicycle racks and other facilities…




¹ See for example Leyden, K. M. (2003). Social capital and the built environment: The importance of walkable neighborhoods. American Journal of Public Health, 93(9), 1546-1551. Available on the Web at https://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/pdfplus/10.2105/AJPH.93.9.1546


² One of the critical challenges for cities that are losing their walkable multi-mobility is declining air quality. The European Commission’s “Green City Tool” ties these issues together and makes recommendations, noting that “Clean air is essential for the good health and well-being of humans and for animals and plants.” https://webgate.ec.europa.eu/greencitytool/topic/air/guidance


³ See Southworth, M. (2005). Designing the Walkable City. Journal of Urban Planning and Development, 131(4), 246-257. Available on the Web at https://ascelibrary.org/doi/pdf/10.1061/%28ASCE%290733-9488%282005%29131%3A4%28246%29


Image: Cengiz Sari via Unsplash.



SECTION I:

PATTERNS OF SCALE


1. REGIONAL PATTERNS

Define the large-scale spatial organization…

1.1. POLYCENTRIC REGION

1.2. BLUE-GREEN NETWORK

1.3. MOBILITY CORRIDOR

1.4. 400M THROUGH STREET NETWORK

2. URBAN PATTERNS

Establish essential urban characteristics…

2.1. WALKABLE MULTI-MOBILITY

2.2. LEVEL CITY

2.3. PUBLIC SPACE SYSTEM

2.4. BIOPHILIC URBANISM

3. STREET PATTERNS

Identify and allocate street types…

3.1.URBAN GREENWAY

3.2. MULTI-WAY BOULEVARD

3.3. AVENUE

3.4. SHARED SPACE LANE

4. NEIGHBORHOOD PATTERNS

Define neighborhood-scale elements…

4.1. STREET AS CENTER

4.2. PEDESTRIAN SANCTUARY

4.3. NEIGHBORHOOD SQUARE

4.4. NEIGHBORHOOD PARK

5. SPECIAL USE PATTERNS

Integrate unique urban elements with care…

5.1. SCHOOL CAMPUS

5.2. MARKET CENTER

5.3. INDUSTRIAL AREA

5.4. HOSPITAL

6. PUBLIC SPACE PATTERNS

Establish the character of the crucial public realm…

6.1. PLACE NETWORK

6.2. WALKABLE STREETSCAPE

6.3. MOVABLE SEATING

6.4. CAPILLARY PATHWAY

7. BLOCK AND PLOT PATTERNS

Lay out the detailed structure of property lines…

7.1. SMALL BLOCKS

7.2. PERIMETER BLOCK

7.3. SMALL PLOTS

7.4. MID-BLOCK ALLEY

8. STREETSCAPE PATTERNS

Configure the street as a welcoming place…

8.1. STREET AS ROOM

8.2. TERMINATED VISTA

8.3. STREET TREES

8.4. STREET FURNISHINGS

9. BUILDING PATTERNS

Lay out appropriate urban buildings…

9.1. PERIMETER BUILDING

9.2. ARCADE BUILDING

9.3. COURTYARD BUILDING

9.4. ROW BUILDING

10. BUILDING EDGE PATTERNS

Create interior and exterior connectivity…

10.1. INDOOR-OUTDOOR AMBIGUITY

10.2. CIRCULATION NETWORK

10.3. LAYERED ZONES

10.4. PASSAGEWAY VIEW



SECTION II:

PATTERNS OF MULTIPLE SCALE


11. GEOMETRIC PATTERNS

Build in coherent geometries at all scales…

11.1. LOCAL SYMMETRY

11.2. SMALL GROUPS OF ELEMENTS

11.3. FRACTAL PATTERN

11.4. FRAMING

12. AFFORDANCE PATTERNS

Build in user capacity to shape the environment…

12.1. HANDLES

12.2. CO-PRODUCTION

12.3. FRIENDLY SURFACES

12.4. MALLEABILITY

13. RETROFIT PATTERNS

Revitalize and improve existing urban assets …

13.1. SLUM UPGRADE

13.2. SPRAWL RETROFIT

13.3. URBAN REGENERATION

13.4. URBAN CONSOLIDATION

14. INFORMAL GROWTH PATTERNS

Accommodate “bottom-up” urban growth…

14.1. LAND TENURE

14.2. UTILITIES FIRST

14.3. DATA WITH THE PEOPLE

14.4. INCREMENTAL SELF-BUILD

15. CONSTRUCTION PATTERNS

Use the building process to enrich the result…

15.1. DESIGN-BUILD ADAPTATION

15.2. HUMAN-SCALE DETAIL

15.3. CONSTRUCTION ORNAMENT

15.4. COMPLEX MATERIALS



SECTION III:

PATTERNS OF PROCESS


16. IMPLEMENTATION TOOL PATTERNS

Use tools to achieve successful results…

16.1. FORM-BASED CODE

16.2. ENTITLEMENT STREAMLINING

16.3. NEIGHBORHOOD PLANNING CENTER

16.4. COMMUNITY MOCKUP

17. PROJECT ECONOMICS PATTERNS

Create flows of money that support urban quality…

17.1. TAX-INCREMENT FINANCING

17.2. LAND VALUE CAPTURE

17.3. EXTERNALITY VALUATION

17.4. ECONOMIES OF PLACE AND DIFFERENTIATION

18. PLACE GOVERNANCE PATTERNS

Processes for making and managing places…

18.1. SUBSIDIARITY

18.2. POLYCENTRIC GOVERNANCE

18.3. PUBLIC-PRIVATE PLACE MANAGEMENT

18.4. INFORMAL STEWARDSHIP

19. AFFORDABILITY PATTERNS

Build in affordability for all incomes…

19.1. INTEGRATED AFFORDABILITY

19.2. COMMUNITY LAND TRUST

19.3. MULTI-FAMILY INFILL

19.4. SPECULATION TAX

20. NEW TECHNOLOGY PATTERNS

Integrate new systems without damaging old ones…

20.1. SMART AV SYSTEM

20.2. RESPONSIVE TRANSPORTATION NETWORK COMPANY

20.3. AUGMENTED REALITY DESIGN

20.4. CITIZEN DATA