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6.2. Walkable Streetscape

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(Weitergeleitet von Walkable Streetscape)

Along an Avenue, Urban Greenway or Multi-Way Boulevard there is a need to provide for Walkable Multi-Mobility.


06 2 01 Walkable Streetscape.jpg


Problem-statement: There are many potential conflicts between pedestrians and other forms of movement, as well as potential conflicts between pedestrian needs and the needs of adjacent building users.


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Discussion: Along streets, pedestrians need ample space to walk, and to pass other pedestrians who are walking in the other direction or standing briefly. This pedestrian travel zone will vary depending on the population of the area, but in general it is a minimum of 1.5 meters, or approximately 5 feet. More ideally it is at least 3 meters, or 10 feet. In addition, there is a need to accommodate seating areas and commercial elements such as planters and signage, which generally require another 1.5 meters or 5 feet. Finally there is a need for a zone for street trees, light poles and other elements, which require approximately 1.5 meters or 5 feet. Altogether, the space for the pedestrian right of way should be at least 4.5 meters or 15 feet, and more typically 6 meters or 20 feet, not including any additional yard space for adjacent buildings.


There is also a need to accommodate bicycles, which can pose dangers to pedestrians. The best way to do both is to have a separate travel lane for bicycles at a separate grade, between the pedestrian area and the parking zone, or other protective zone between bicycles and vehicles.


In low-speed street areas — typically those with speeds limited to 30 kilometers per hour, or about 20 miles per hour, the bicycles can travel safely in the vehicle lanes.


Do not neglect a pedestrian’s psychological need to feel safe from vehicles, even slow-moving ones. This requires careful design of the curb, with an appropriate height, or sometimes the use of attractively designed bollards. On-street parking can also be helpful — see Avenue.¹


06 2 02 Walkable Streetscape.jpg
The distinct zones of a walkable streetscape.


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Therefore:

Assure that every streetscape along an avenue, greenway corridor or multi-way boulevard is walkable, by providing adequate width for pedestrian travel (typically at least 3 meters, or 10 feet) in addition to space for seating, and space for planting and light poles. Provide psychological (and actual) protection from dangerous fast-moving traffic.


06 2 03 Walkable Streetscape.jpg


Line the streetscape wherever possible with a Perimeter Building, and elsewhere place pedestrian-friendly visual elements such as trellises, pergolas, vegetation and other attractive screens. Provide Human-Scale Detail including architectural and urban elements, along the length of the streetscape. …




¹ Our colleague Vikas Mehta has done leading research on walkable street design and its psychological dimensions, for example in Mehta, V. (2008). Walkable streets: Pedestrian behavior, perceptions and attitudes. Journal of Urbanism, 1(3), 217-245.



SECTION I:

PATTERNS OF SCALE


1. REGIONAL PATTERNS

Define the large-scale spatial organization…

1.1. POLYCENTRIC REGION

1.2. BLUE-GREEN NETWORK

1.3. MOBILITY CORRIDOR

1.4. 400M THROUGH STREET NETWORK

2. URBAN PATTERNS

Establish essential urban characteristics…

2.1. WALKABLE MULTI-MOBILITY

2.2. LEVEL CITY

2.3. PUBLIC SPACE SYSTEM

2.4. BIOPHILIC URBANISM

3. STREET PATTERNS

Identify and allocate street types…

3.1.URBAN GREENWAY

3.2. MULTI-WAY BOULEVARD

3.3. AVENUE

3.4. SHARED SPACE LANE

4. NEIGHBORHOOD PATTERNS

Define neighborhood-scale elements…

4.1. STREET AS CENTER

4.2. PEDESTRIAN SANCTUARY

4.3. NEIGHBORHOOD SQUARE

4.4. NEIGHBORHOOD PARK

5. SPECIAL USE PATTERNS

Integrate unique urban elements with care…

5.1. SCHOOL CAMPUS

5.2. MARKET CENTER

5.3. INDUSTRIAL AREA

5.4. HOSPITAL

6. PUBLIC SPACE PATTERNS

Establish the character of the crucial public realm…

6.1. PLACE NETWORK

6.2. WALKABLE STREETSCAPE

6.3. MOVABLE SEATING

6.4. CAPILLARY PATHWAY

7. BLOCK AND PLOT PATTERNS

Lay out the detailed structure of property lines…

7.1. SMALL BLOCKS

7.2. PERIMETER BLOCK

7.3. SMALL PLOTS

7.4. MID-BLOCK ALLEY

8. STREETSCAPE PATTERNS

Configure the street as a welcoming place…

8.1. STREET AS ROOM

8.2. TERMINATED VISTA

8.3. STREET TREES

8.4. STREET FURNISHINGS

9. BUILDING PATTERNS

Lay out appropriate urban buildings…

9.1. PERIMETER BUILDING

9.2. ARCADE BUILDING

9.3. COURTYARD BUILDING

9.4. ROW BUILDING

10. BUILDING EDGE PATTERNS

Create interior and exterior connectivity…

10.1. INDOOR-OUTDOOR AMBIGUITY

10.2. CIRCULATION NETWORK

10.3. LAYERED ZONES

10.4. PASSAGEWAY VIEW



SECTION II:

PATTERNS OF MULTIPLE SCALE


11. GEOMETRIC PATTERNS

Build in coherent geometries at all scales…

11.1. LOCAL SYMMETRY

11.2. SMALL GROUPS OF ELEMENTS

11.3. FRACTAL PATTERN

11.4. FRAMING

12. AFFORDANCE PATTERNS

Build in user capacity to shape the environment…

12.1. HANDLES

12.2. CO-PRODUCTION

12.3. FRIENDLY SURFACES

12.4. MALLEABILITY

13. RETROFIT PATTERNS

Revitalize and improve existing urban assets …

13.1. SLUM UPGRADE

13.2. SPRAWL RETROFIT

13.3. URBAN REGENERATION

13.4. URBAN CONSOLIDATION

14. INFORMAL GROWTH PATTERNS

Accommodate “bottom-up” urban growth…

14.1. LAND TENURE

14.2. UTILITIES FIRST

14.3. DATA WITH THE PEOPLE

14.4. INCREMENTAL SELF-BUILD

15. CONSTRUCTION PATTERNS

Use the building process to enrich the result…

15.1. DESIGN-BUILD ADAPTATION

15.2. HUMAN-SCALE DETAIL

15.3. CONSTRUCTION ORNAMENT

15.4. COMPLEX MATERIALS



SECTION III:

PATTERNS OF PROCESS


16. IMPLEMENTATION TOOL PATTERNS

Use tools to achieve successful results…

16.1. FORM-BASED CODE

16.2. ENTITLEMENT STREAMLINING

16.3. NEIGHBORHOOD PLANNING CENTER

16.4. COMMUNITY MOCKUP

17. PROJECT ECONOMICS PATTERNS

Create flows of money that support urban quality…

17.1. TAX-INCREMENT FINANCING

17.2. LAND VALUE CAPTURE

17.3. EXTERNALITY VALUATION

17.4. ECONOMIES OF PLACE AND DIFFERENTIATION

18. PLACE GOVERNANCE PATTERNS

Processes for making and managing places…

18.1. SUBSIDIARITY

18.2. POLYCENTRIC GOVERNANCE

18.3. PUBLIC-PRIVATE PLACE MANAGEMENT

18.4. INFORMAL STEWARDSHIP

19. AFFORDABILITY PATTERNS

Build in affordability for all incomes…

19.1. INTEGRATED AFFORDABILITY

19.2. COMMUNITY LAND TRUST

19.3. MULTI-FAMILY INFILL

19.4. SPECULATION TAX

20. NEW TECHNOLOGY PATTERNS

Integrate new systems without damaging old ones…

20.1. SMART AV SYSTEM

20.2. RESPONSIVE TRANSPORTATION NETWORK COMPANY

20.3. AUGMENTED REALITY DESIGN

20.4. CITIZEN DATA