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6.4. Capillary Pathway

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(Weitergeleitet von Capillary Pathway)

Within a Pedestrian Sanctuary there is a need to provide pathways that are not part of the street or lane system, but are nonetheless public pathways.


06 4 01 Capillary Pathway.jpg


Problem-statement: Some of the most appealing urban public spaces are not along streets, but along separate pedestrian pathways. These pathways form a kind of “capillary” system for pedestrians.


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Discussion: The term “capillary” refers to the very small hair-like passageways of the bloodstream, where individual blood cells reach individual body cells. A similar structure exists in the best cities, where capillary pathways form a secondary system of pedestrian movement, partly away from and complementing the street network.


Capillary pathways are components of a larger movement system exhibiting what is called fractal scaling in mathematics. In fractals, there are typically a few large examples, more intermediate-size ones, and very many smaller ones. In the case of capillary pathways, these are in effect the smallest-scale streets that become the smallest (long and narrow) urban public spaces.


Such pathways were common in traditional cities, as can be seen in the example of the Old Town Plaza from Albuquerque on the next page. This pattern was generated from a set of Spanish laws and practices known as the “Laws of the Indies.”1


In some cases, these pathways may be owned by private entities, but to be successful, pedestrians need easements for regular access. Private ownership of adjacent structures is also a beneficial condition, since they provide security as well as potential commercial activities and other active uses.² In addition, it is important to provide visual surveillance including from nearby streets, ensuring that these passageways do not become dangerous “blind alleys”.


Capillary pathways should not be allowed to draw too many pedestrians away from the surrounding streets. Rather, they should be seen as a complementary network, making the entire experience of walking more interesting, varied and attractive, and drawing more pedestrians to an area.


06 4 02 Capillary Pathway.jpg
A capillary passageway leading to a courtyard and beyond in Albuquerque’s Old Town Plaza.


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Therefore:

Where there is sufficient volume of pedestrians, and sufficient activities to provide adequate security, create capillary pathways in an orthogonal pattern, crossing streets and interconnecting them, as well as other destinations. Provide ample “eyes on the pathway” and other security measures to assure safety.


06 4 03 Capillary Pathway.jpg


Where feasible, take pathways into a Courtyard Building, or create courtyard-like spaces along their lengths. …




¹ A discussion of the patterns from Old Town Albuquerque, and new applications of the “generative” characteristics of the Laws of the Indies, can be found in Hakim, B. S. (2007). Generative processes for revitalizing historic towns or heritage districts. Urban Design International, 12(2-3), 87-99.


² Sometimes it is the owners themselves who have created these capillary passageways as public easements, so that they could get more use and value from their own properties. For an account of this process in a traditional urban context, see Ben-Hamouche, M. (2009). Complexity of urban fabric in traditional Muslim cities: Importing old wisdom to present cities. Urban Design International, 14(1), 22-35.


Image: Tabea Damm on Unsplash



SECTION I:

PATTERNS OF SCALE


1. REGIONAL PATTERNS

Define the large-scale spatial organization…

1.1. POLYCENTRIC REGION

1.2. BLUE-GREEN NETWORK

1.3. MOBILITY CORRIDOR

1.4. 400M THROUGH STREET NETWORK

2. URBAN PATTERNS

Establish essential urban characteristics…

2.1. WALKABLE MULTI-MOBILITY

2.2. LEVEL CITY

2.3. PUBLIC SPACE SYSTEM

2.4. BIOPHILIC URBANISM

3. STREET PATTERNS

Identify and allocate street types…

3.1.URBAN GREENWAY

3.2. MULTI-WAY BOULEVARD

3.3. AVENUE

3.4. SHARED SPACE LANE

4. NEIGHBORHOOD PATTERNS

Define neighborhood-scale elements…

4.1. STREET AS CENTER

4.2. PEDESTRIAN SANCTUARY

4.3. NEIGHBORHOOD SQUARE

4.4. NEIGHBORHOOD PARK

5. SPECIAL USE PATTERNS

Integrate unique urban elements with care…

5.1. SCHOOL CAMPUS

5.2. MARKET CENTER

5.3. INDUSTRIAL AREA

5.4. HOSPITAL

6. PUBLIC SPACE PATTERNS

Establish the character of the crucial public realm…

6.1. PLACE NETWORK

6.2. WALKABLE STREETSCAPE

6.3. MOVABLE SEATING

6.4. CAPILLARY PATHWAY

7. BLOCK AND PLOT PATTERNS

Lay out the detailed structure of property lines…

7.1. SMALL BLOCKS

7.2. PERIMETER BLOCK

7.3. SMALL PLOTS

7.4. MID-BLOCK ALLEY

8. STREETSCAPE PATTERNS

Configure the street as a welcoming place…

8.1. STREET AS ROOM

8.2. TERMINATED VISTA

8.3. STREET TREES

8.4. STREET FURNISHINGS

9. BUILDING PATTERNS

Lay out appropriate urban buildings…

9.1. PERIMETER BUILDING

9.2. ARCADE BUILDING

9.3. COURTYARD BUILDING

9.4. ROW BUILDING

10. BUILDING EDGE PATTERNS

Create interior and exterior connectivity…

10.1. INDOOR-OUTDOOR AMBIGUITY

10.2. CIRCULATION NETWORK

10.3. LAYERED ZONES

10.4. PASSAGEWAY VIEW



SECTION II:

PATTERNS OF MULTIPLE SCALE


11. GEOMETRIC PATTERNS

Build in coherent geometries at all scales…

11.1. LOCAL SYMMETRY

11.2. SMALL GROUPS OF ELEMENTS

11.3. FRACTAL PATTERN

11.4. FRAMING

12. AFFORDANCE PATTERNS

Build in user capacity to shape the environment…

12.1. HANDLES

12.2. CO-PRODUCTION

12.3. FRIENDLY SURFACES

12.4. MALLEABILITY

13. RETROFIT PATTERNS

Revitalize and improve existing urban assets …

13.1. SLUM UPGRADE

13.2. SPRAWL RETROFIT

13.3. URBAN REGENERATION

13.4. URBAN CONSOLIDATION

14. INFORMAL GROWTH PATTERNS

Accommodate “bottom-up” urban growth…

14.1. LAND TENURE

14.2. UTILITIES FIRST

14.3. DATA WITH THE PEOPLE

14.4. INCREMENTAL SELF-BUILD

15. CONSTRUCTION PATTERNS

Use the building process to enrich the result…

15.1. DESIGN-BUILD ADAPTATION

15.2. HUMAN-SCALE DETAIL

15.3. CONSTRUCTION ORNAMENT

15.4. COMPLEX MATERIALS



SECTION III:

PATTERNS OF PROCESS


16. IMPLEMENTATION TOOL PATTERNS

Use tools to achieve successful results…

16.1. FORM-BASED CODE

16.2. ENTITLEMENT STREAMLINING

16.3. NEIGHBORHOOD PLANNING CENTER

16.4. COMMUNITY MOCKUP

17. PROJECT ECONOMICS PATTERNS

Create flows of money that support urban quality…

17.1. TAX-INCREMENT FINANCING

17.2. LAND VALUE CAPTURE

17.3. EXTERNALITY VALUATION

17.4. ECONOMIES OF PLACE AND DIFFERENTIATION

18. PLACE GOVERNANCE PATTERNS

Processes for making and managing places…

18.1. SUBSIDIARITY

18.2. POLYCENTRIC GOVERNANCE

18.3. PUBLIC-PRIVATE PLACE MANAGEMENT

18.4. INFORMAL STEWARDSHIP

19. AFFORDABILITY PATTERNS

Build in affordability for all incomes…

19.1. INTEGRATED AFFORDABILITY

19.2. COMMUNITY LAND TRUST

19.3. MULTI-FAMILY INFILL

19.4. SPECULATION TAX

20. NEW TECHNOLOGY PATTERNS

Integrate new systems without damaging old ones…

20.1. SMART AV SYSTEM

20.2. RESPONSIVE TRANSPORTATION NETWORK COMPANY

20.3. AUGMENTED REALITY DESIGN

20.4. CITIZEN DATA