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12.2. Co-Production

Aus Pattern Language Wiki

(Weitergeleitet von Co-Production)

Give people the power to shape their Public Space System and Place Network as well as their private realms.


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Problem-statement: The best urban places are not produced all at one time, by experts. They are continuously “co-produced” by all of the people — residents, businesspeople, pedestrians, children. This capacity for co-production must be developed and sustained.


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Discussion:Jane Jacobs was famous for pointing out, in her landmark The Death and Life of Great American Cities, that the city cannot be made only by experts:


“Cities have the capability of providing something for everybody, only because, and only when, they are created by everybody.”


What Jacobs knew was that, in addition to the infrastructure and the buildings that tend to be built as more static works by larger institutions, there are many smaller and medium-sized actions that shape the life of cities. There are works of art; signs and banners; ornament and decoration; vendors; and above all, people, moving, gathering, talking, arguing, singing, and ultimately shaping the character of public space.


Moreover, there are other, slower scales at which the city is also co-produced: a vendor adds plants to mark the entrance to their store; a couple adds a rooftop terrace with a new fence; a café removes seating along the street; a builder builds a new building; a group of citizens attends a hearing to comment on new development plans.¹


We can see the powerful emergent results of this kind of transformation in beautiful cities all over the world — for example, the drawing at the start of this pattern by the morphologist Saverio Muratori. It shows the remarkable transformation of Venice over about 100 years, largely by small acts of individual owners. There were of course other influences too, including the regulatory codes, and the patterns and practices maintained by the traditional craftspeople of the city.


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Many small changes have been made by many different agents on this section of a London street over just five years, including new rooftop terraces and fencing, removed seating, new planters, and other awnings and signage.


Many thinkers of diverse political viewpoints have argued that urban space is “produced” as a social construct, and that the maintenance of this capacity is an essential component of urban justice.² A forgotten space under a bridge, for example, may be invested with meaning and become a cherished public space when a group of teenagers, say, begins using it as a skateboard park. The government has a responsibility to protect their right to “co-produce” this public space, in balance with its other responsibilities.


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Therefore:

Recognize processes of co-production in the city, and provide additional mechanisms for the involvement of all stakeholders in the co-production of their shared common realm.


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Maintain the opportunity for Design-Build Adaptation, Malleability and Human-Scale Detail, with the addition of Construction Ornament. Preserve the overall coherence of individual co-production with regulatory codes such as a Form-Based Code




¹ See Sharp, E. B. (1980). Toward a new understanding of urban services and citizen participation: The coproduction concept. Midwest Review of Public Administration, 14(2), 105-118.


² One of the most influential theorists on the social production of space was Henri Lefevbre. See for example Lefebvre, H. (1991). The Production of Space. Translated by Donald Nicholson-Smith. Oxford UK: Blackwell



SECTION I:

PATTERNS OF SCALE


1. REGIONAL PATTERNS

Define the large-scale spatial organization…

1.1. POLYCENTRIC REGION

1.2. BLUE-GREEN NETWORK

1.3. MOBILITY CORRIDOR

1.4. 400M THROUGH STREET NETWORK

2. URBAN PATTERNS

Establish essential urban characteristics…

2.1. WALKABLE MULTI-MOBILITY

2.2. LEVEL CITY

2.3. PUBLIC SPACE SYSTEM

2.4. BIOPHILIC URBANISM

3. STREET PATTERNS

Identify and allocate street types…

3.1.URBAN GREENWAY

3.2. MULTI-WAY BOULEVARD

3.3. AVENUE

3.4. SHARED SPACE LANE

4. NEIGHBORHOOD PATTERNS

Define neighborhood-scale elements…

4.1. STREET AS CENTER

4.2. PEDESTRIAN SANCTUARY

4.3. NEIGHBORHOOD SQUARE

4.4. NEIGHBORHOOD PARK

5. SPECIAL USE PATTERNS

Integrate unique urban elements with care…

5.1. SCHOOL CAMPUS

5.2. MARKET CENTER

5.3. INDUSTRIAL AREA

5.4. HOSPITAL

6. PUBLIC SPACE PATTERNS

Establish the character of the crucial public realm…

6.1. PLACE NETWORK

6.2. WALKABLE STREETSCAPE

6.3. MOVABLE SEATING

6.4. CAPILLARY PATHWAY

7. BLOCK AND PLOT PATTERNS

Lay out the detailed structure of property lines…

7.1. SMALL BLOCKS

7.2. PERIMETER BLOCK

7.3. SMALL PLOTS

7.4. MID-BLOCK ALLEY

8. STREETSCAPE PATTERNS

Configure the street as a welcoming place…

8.1. STREET AS ROOM

8.2. TERMINATED VISTA

8.3. STREET TREES

8.4. STREET FURNISHINGS

9. BUILDING PATTERNS

Lay out appropriate urban buildings…

9.1. PERIMETER BUILDING

9.2. ARCADE BUILDING

9.3. COURTYARD BUILDING

9.4. ROW BUILDING

10. BUILDING EDGE PATTERNS

Create interior and exterior connectivity…

10.1. INDOOR-OUTDOOR AMBIGUITY

10.2. CIRCULATION NETWORK

10.3. LAYERED ZONES

10.4. PASSAGEWAY VIEW



SECTION II:

PATTERNS OF MULTIPLE SCALE


11. GEOMETRIC PATTERNS

Build in coherent geometries at all scales…

11.1. LOCAL SYMMETRY

11.2. SMALL GROUPS OF ELEMENTS

11.3. FRACTAL PATTERN

11.4. FRAMING

12. AFFORDANCE PATTERNS

Build in user capacity to shape the environment…

12.1. HANDLES

12.2. CO-PRODUCTION

12.3. FRIENDLY SURFACES

12.4. MALLEABILITY

13. RETROFIT PATTERNS

Revitalize and improve existing urban assets …

13.1. SLUM UPGRADE

13.2. SPRAWL RETROFIT

13.3. URBAN REGENERATION

13.4. URBAN CONSOLIDATION

14. INFORMAL GROWTH PATTERNS

Accommodate “bottom-up” urban growth…

14.1. LAND TENURE

14.2. UTILITIES FIRST

14.3. DATA WITH THE PEOPLE

14.4. INCREMENTAL SELF-BUILD

15. CONSTRUCTION PATTERNS

Use the building process to enrich the result…

15.1. DESIGN-BUILD ADAPTATION

15.2. HUMAN-SCALE DETAIL

15.3. CONSTRUCTION ORNAMENT

15.4. COMPLEX MATERIALS



SECTION III:

PATTERNS OF PROCESS


16. IMPLEMENTATION TOOL PATTERNS

Use tools to achieve successful results…

16.1. FORM-BASED CODE

16.2. ENTITLEMENT STREAMLINING

16.3. NEIGHBORHOOD PLANNING CENTER

16.4. COMMUNITY MOCKUP

17. PROJECT ECONOMICS PATTERNS

Create flows of money that support urban quality…

17.1. TAX-INCREMENT FINANCING

17.2. LAND VALUE CAPTURE

17.3. EXTERNALITY VALUATION

17.4. ECONOMIES OF PLACE AND DIFFERENTIATION

18. PLACE GOVERNANCE PATTERNS

Processes for making and managing places…

18.1. SUBSIDIARITY

18.2. POLYCENTRIC GOVERNANCE

18.3. PUBLIC-PRIVATE PLACE MANAGEMENT

18.4. INFORMAL STEWARDSHIP

19. AFFORDABILITY PATTERNS

Build in affordability for all incomes…

19.1. INTEGRATED AFFORDABILITY

19.2. COMMUNITY LAND TRUST

19.3. MULTI-FAMILY INFILL

19.4. SPECULATION TAX

20. NEW TECHNOLOGY PATTERNS

Integrate new systems without damaging old ones…

20.1. SMART AV SYSTEM

20.2. RESPONSIVE TRANSPORTATION NETWORK COMPANY

20.3. AUGMENTED REALITY DESIGN

20.4. CITIZEN DATA