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9.3. Courtyard Building

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(Weitergeleitet von Courtyard Building)

When laying out the Perimeter Block, conceive of the block as a series of courtyards, with some of them penetrating into individual buildings.


09 3 01 Courtyard Building.jpg


Problem-statement: In busy neighborhoods, there is a need for quiet outdoor space that is part of the building, and for light and air to enter the rooms in the middle of the building. This is the archetypal courtyard building.


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Discussion: We have already discussed why the Perimeter Block is a beneficial pattern, providing an urban connection on one side and private outdoor space on the other. Here we jump down one scale to the individual building that encloses a courtyard, providing the same benefits at a smaller scale.


Courtyard buildings can be seen across many cultures and climates including colder climates, where they typically form small outdoor spaces of L-shaped or U-shaped buildings. In hotter climates, courtyard buildings are often O-shaped, with the outdoor space completely surrounded by the building. In some cases, there are multiple courtyards within the same building.


Courtyard buildings do pose some challenges, including a larger exterior wall area requiring additional insulation in buildings that require heating or cooling. Some courtyard buildings employ operable or retractable roofs over the courtyard, including glazed roofs.


Not often mentioned is the remarkable energy and comfort performance that a courtyard building can achieve (able to remain relatively cool in warm weather, and warmer in cool weather, without high consumption of fuels or other resources)1. It was largely for this reason, as well as for qualities of natural light and ventilation, that the pattern can be seen independently in so many traditional building cultures. In addition, courtyard buildings bring sunlight (modulated by shading devices) directly into otherwise deep buildings.


.The performance of courtyard buildings can be improved with galleries or porches along one or more sides of the courtyard, shading from excessive sun, and also forming a connecting transition zone.


09 3 02 Courtyard Building.jpg
A courtyard house in California


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Therefore:

When buildings become too deep to admit air and light, or when they would benefit from private outdoor space within them, lay them out as courtyard buildings. Create porches fronting them, or wrapping two or more sides. If the courtyards are not entirely enclosed by buildings, enclose them with appropriate walls or fences, so that they function as private outdoor spaces.


09 3 03 Courtyard Building.jpg


Create Indoor-Outdoor Ambiguity within the courtyard building, by using fully or partially glazed roofs. Create a Circulation Network within the spaces surrounding the courtyard. …




¹ The energy performance of courtyard buildings in different climates has been widely studied. See for example Aldawoud, A. (2008). Thermal performance of courtyard buildings. Energy and Buildings, 40(5), 906-910.



SECTION I:

PATTERNS OF SCALE


1. REGIONAL PATTERNS

Define the large-scale spatial organization…

1.1. POLYCENTRIC REGION

1.2. BLUE-GREEN NETWORK

1.3. MOBILITY CORRIDOR

1.4. 400M THROUGH STREET NETWORK

2. URBAN PATTERNS

Establish essential urban characteristics…

2.1. WALKABLE MULTI-MOBILITY

2.2. LEVEL CITY

2.3. PUBLIC SPACE SYSTEM

2.4. BIOPHILIC URBANISM

3. STREET PATTERNS

Identify and allocate street types…

3.1.URBAN GREENWAY

3.2. MULTI-WAY BOULEVARD

3.3. AVENUE

3.4. SHARED SPACE LANE

4. NEIGHBORHOOD PATTERNS

Define neighborhood-scale elements…

4.1. STREET AS CENTER

4.2. PEDESTRIAN SANCTUARY

4.3. NEIGHBORHOOD SQUARE

4.4. NEIGHBORHOOD PARK

5. SPECIAL USE PATTERNS

Integrate unique urban elements with care…

5.1. SCHOOL CAMPUS

5.2. MARKET CENTER

5.3. INDUSTRIAL AREA

5.4. HOSPITAL

6. PUBLIC SPACE PATTERNS

Establish the character of the crucial public realm…

6.1. PLACE NETWORK

6.2. WALKABLE STREETSCAPE

6.3. MOVABLE SEATING

6.4. CAPILLARY PATHWAY

7. BLOCK AND PLOT PATTERNS

Lay out the detailed structure of property lines…

7.1. SMALL BLOCKS

7.2. PERIMETER BLOCK

7.3. SMALL PLOTS

7.4. MID-BLOCK ALLEY

8. STREETSCAPE PATTERNS

Configure the street as a welcoming place…

8.1. STREET AS ROOM

8.2. TERMINATED VISTA

8.3. STREET TREES

8.4. STREET FURNISHINGS

9. BUILDING PATTERNS

Lay out appropriate urban buildings…

9.1. PERIMETER BUILDING

9.2. ARCADE BUILDING

9.3. COURTYARD BUILDING

9.4. ROW BUILDING

10. BUILDING EDGE PATTERNS

Create interior and exterior connectivity…

10.1. INDOOR-OUTDOOR AMBIGUITY

10.2. CIRCULATION NETWORK

10.3. LAYERED ZONES

10.4. PASSAGEWAY VIEW



SECTION II:

PATTERNS OF MULTIPLE SCALE


11. GEOMETRIC PATTERNS

Build in coherent geometries at all scales…

11.1. LOCAL SYMMETRY

11.2. SMALL GROUPS OF ELEMENTS

11.3. FRACTAL PATTERN

11.4. FRAMING

12. AFFORDANCE PATTERNS

Build in user capacity to shape the environment…

12.1. HANDLES

12.2. CO-PRODUCTION

12.3. FRIENDLY SURFACES

12.4. MALLEABILITY

13. RETROFIT PATTERNS

Revitalize and improve existing urban assets …

13.1. SLUM UPGRADE

13.2. SPRAWL RETROFIT

13.3. URBAN REGENERATION

13.4. URBAN CONSOLIDATION

14. INFORMAL GROWTH PATTERNS

Accommodate “bottom-up” urban growth…

14.1. LAND TENURE

14.2. UTILITIES FIRST

14.3. DATA WITH THE PEOPLE

14.4. INCREMENTAL SELF-BUILD

15. CONSTRUCTION PATTERNS

Use the building process to enrich the result…

15.1. DESIGN-BUILD ADAPTATION

15.2. HUMAN-SCALE DETAIL

15.3. CONSTRUCTION ORNAMENT

15.4. COMPLEX MATERIALS



SECTION III:

PATTERNS OF PROCESS


16. IMPLEMENTATION TOOL PATTERNS

Use tools to achieve successful results…

16.1. FORM-BASED CODE

16.2. ENTITLEMENT STREAMLINING

16.3. NEIGHBORHOOD PLANNING CENTER

16.4. COMMUNITY MOCKUP

17. PROJECT ECONOMICS PATTERNS

Create flows of money that support urban quality…

17.1. TAX-INCREMENT FINANCING

17.2. LAND VALUE CAPTURE

17.3. EXTERNALITY VALUATION

17.4. ECONOMIES OF PLACE AND DIFFERENTIATION

18. PLACE GOVERNANCE PATTERNS

Processes for making and managing places…

18.1. SUBSIDIARITY

18.2. POLYCENTRIC GOVERNANCE

18.3. PUBLIC-PRIVATE PLACE MANAGEMENT

18.4. INFORMAL STEWARDSHIP

19. AFFORDABILITY PATTERNS

Build in affordability for all incomes…

19.1. INTEGRATED AFFORDABILITY

19.2. COMMUNITY LAND TRUST

19.3. MULTI-FAMILY INFILL

19.4. SPECULATION TAX

20. NEW TECHNOLOGY PATTERNS

Integrate new systems without damaging old ones…

20.1. SMART AV SYSTEM

20.2. RESPONSIVE TRANSPORTATION NETWORK COMPANY

20.3. AUGMENTED REALITY DESIGN

20.4. CITIZEN DATA