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16.2. Entitlement Streamlining

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(Weitergeleitet von Entitlement Streamlining)

In order to complete Urban Regeneration with Design-Build Adaptation, a smooth process of entitlement is needed.


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Problem-statement: Too often the entitlement process for urban development is irrational, contradictory, confusing, uncertain — and too expensive.


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Discussion: The contribution of the entitlement process — planning applications, design review, building permits, inspections and so on — to the increasing cost of development has been widely discussed. This regulatory framework is widely acknowledged to be essential to protect public health and welfare, by requiring better-quality development, and by frequently allowing public and judicial review of the design quality of projects.


Paradoxically, however, sometimes the result is lower quality, as builders and developers seek to cut corners and “game the system.” Moreover, the uncertainty and delay introduced in to the process increases risk, which translates into increased cost — moving in exactly the wrong direction when it comes to the need for more affordable homes.


In response, some advocates of affordable housing have suggested that the answer is to force projects through over the objections of local residents. But residents have a stake in the quality of their public realm, and in how adjacent private development impacts their quality of life. In most cities, they are granted the right to participate in the “co-production” of their neighborhood and its public realm (see CO-PRODUCTION, 12.2). Moreover, a constructive, “win-win” approach between residents and developers can actually result in better projects — more popular with neighbors, buyers and renters, and more financially successful for the owners.


This leaves the problem of the jurisdictions, whose bureaucratic processes are often a bigger problem. One of the most common problems is regulatory mis-alignment, meaning that procedures in one department or jurisdiction are in conflict with those in another.

A more “agile” strategy would be to find already successful types and patterns that meet the regulatory standards, and are considered compatible and even desirable by the stakeholders. In process, the jurisdictions and stakeholders (including potential developers) would collaborate to identify essentially pre-entitled elements, models, types, and even entire plans (say, for a particularly popular kind of residence or shop building). These pre-entitled structures could still be customized with unique elements — see Economies Of Place And Differentiation — but their essential patterns could be pre-accepted (even as part of a local pattern language just for that neighborhood).


In this way, the problem of residents objecting, and being stigmatized as NIMBYs — whose default position is “Not In My Back Yard” — can give way to residents who support QUIMBY — “Quality In My Back Yard.” They would then be contributing to the positive growth of the neighborhood, instead of being able only to resist (perhaps in vain) its degradation.


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Therefore:

Set up a process of entitlement streamlining, involving the stakeholders of each neighborhood and the members of the various bureaus who can help to simplify and streamline the process. After prototype design elements and plans are identified, work to review and pre-approve them, so that applicants can greatly reduce time — in some cases pulling permits over the counter.


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Use entitlement streamlining as part of the Neighborhood Planning Center and its work. Visualize the structures that are candidates for pre-entitlement with Community Mockup and Augmented Reality Design tools. …




¹ See Pamela Blais’ description of the “perverse” outcomes of these regulatory systems, in Blais, P. (2011). Perverse Cities: Hidden subsidies, wonky policy, and urban sprawl. Vancouver: UBC Press.



SECTION I:

PATTERNS OF SCALE


1. REGIONAL PATTERNS

Define the large-scale spatial organization…

1.1. POLYCENTRIC REGION

1.2. BLUE-GREEN NETWORK

1.3. MOBILITY CORRIDOR

1.4. 400M THROUGH STREET NETWORK

2. URBAN PATTERNS

Establish essential urban characteristics…

2.1. WALKABLE MULTI-MOBILITY

2.2. LEVEL CITY

2.3. PUBLIC SPACE SYSTEM

2.4. BIOPHILIC URBANISM

3. STREET PATTERNS

Identify and allocate street types…

3.1.URBAN GREENWAY

3.2. MULTI-WAY BOULEVARD

3.3. AVENUE

3.4. SHARED SPACE LANE

4. NEIGHBORHOOD PATTERNS

Define neighborhood-scale elements…

4.1. STREET AS CENTER

4.2. PEDESTRIAN SANCTUARY

4.3. NEIGHBORHOOD SQUARE

4.4. NEIGHBORHOOD PARK

5. SPECIAL USE PATTERNS

Integrate unique urban elements with care…

5.1. SCHOOL CAMPUS

5.2. MARKET CENTER

5.3. INDUSTRIAL AREA

5.4. HOSPITAL

6. PUBLIC SPACE PATTERNS

Establish the character of the crucial public realm…

6.1. PLACE NETWORK

6.2. WALKABLE STREETSCAPE

6.3. MOVABLE SEATING

6.4. CAPILLARY PATHWAY

7. BLOCK AND PLOT PATTERNS

Lay out the detailed structure of property lines…

7.1. SMALL BLOCKS

7.2. PERIMETER BLOCK

7.3. SMALL PLOTS

7.4. MID-BLOCK ALLEY

8. STREETSCAPE PATTERNS

Configure the street as a welcoming place…

8.1. STREET AS ROOM

8.2. TERMINATED VISTA

8.3. STREET TREES

8.4. STREET FURNISHINGS

9. BUILDING PATTERNS

Lay out appropriate urban buildings…

9.1. PERIMETER BUILDING

9.2. ARCADE BUILDING

9.3. COURTYARD BUILDING

9.4. ROW BUILDING

10. BUILDING EDGE PATTERNS

Create interior and exterior connectivity…

10.1. INDOOR-OUTDOOR AMBIGUITY

10.2. CIRCULATION NETWORK

10.3. LAYERED ZONES

10.4. PASSAGEWAY VIEW



SECTION II:

PATTERNS OF MULTIPLE SCALE


11. GEOMETRIC PATTERNS

Build in coherent geometries at all scales…

11.1. LOCAL SYMMETRY

11.2. SMALL GROUPS OF ELEMENTS

11.3. FRACTAL PATTERN

11.4. FRAMING

12. AFFORDANCE PATTERNS

Build in user capacity to shape the environment…

12.1. HANDLES

12.2. CO-PRODUCTION

12.3. FRIENDLY SURFACES

12.4. MALLEABILITY

13. RETROFIT PATTERNS

Revitalize and improve existing urban assets …

13.1. SLUM UPGRADE

13.2. SPRAWL RETROFIT

13.3. URBAN REGENERATION

13.4. URBAN CONSOLIDATION

14. INFORMAL GROWTH PATTERNS

Accommodate “bottom-up” urban growth…

14.1. LAND TENURE

14.2. UTILITIES FIRST

14.3. DATA WITH THE PEOPLE

14.4. INCREMENTAL SELF-BUILD

15. CONSTRUCTION PATTERNS

Use the building process to enrich the result…

15.1. DESIGN-BUILD ADAPTATION

15.2. HUMAN-SCALE DETAIL

15.3. CONSTRUCTION ORNAMENT

15.4. COMPLEX MATERIALS



SECTION III:

PATTERNS OF PROCESS


16. IMPLEMENTATION TOOL PATTERNS

Use tools to achieve successful results…

16.1. FORM-BASED CODE

16.2. ENTITLEMENT STREAMLINING

16.3. NEIGHBORHOOD PLANNING CENTER

16.4. COMMUNITY MOCKUP

17. PROJECT ECONOMICS PATTERNS

Create flows of money that support urban quality…

17.1. TAX-INCREMENT FINANCING

17.2. LAND VALUE CAPTURE

17.3. EXTERNALITY VALUATION

17.4. ECONOMIES OF PLACE AND DIFFERENTIATION

18. PLACE GOVERNANCE PATTERNS

Processes for making and managing places…

18.1. SUBSIDIARITY

18.2. POLYCENTRIC GOVERNANCE

18.3. PUBLIC-PRIVATE PLACE MANAGEMENT

18.4. INFORMAL STEWARDSHIP

19. AFFORDABILITY PATTERNS

Build in affordability for all incomes…

19.1. INTEGRATED AFFORDABILITY

19.2. COMMUNITY LAND TRUST

19.3. MULTI-FAMILY INFILL

19.4. SPECULATION TAX

20. NEW TECHNOLOGY PATTERNS

Integrate new systems without damaging old ones…

20.1. SMART AV SYSTEM

20.2. RESPONSIVE TRANSPORTATION NETWORK COMPANY

20.3. AUGMENTED REALITY DESIGN

20.4. CITIZEN DATA