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19.1. Integrated Affordability

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(Weitergeleitet von Integrated Affordability)

One way to maintain Economies Of Place And Differentiation in balance is to avoid clustering affordable housing projects into gigantic “complexes”.


19 1 01 Integrated Affordability.jpg


Problem-statement: Large, institutional “affordable housing” buildings — owned by governments or by non-profit companies — have a deeply problematic history. Rather than subsidizing entire buildings or complexes, it is often better to subsidize individual scattered units, or even the people themselves, and allow them to mix into different neighborhoods.


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Discussion:The urban extension of Dorchester, UK, known as Poundbury (seen at the start of this pattern) currently maintains an impressive 35% of subsidized, permanently affordable housing — yet it is impossible to tell which unit is affordable and which is “market rate.” Poundbury also offers remarkable diversity of incomes, including wealthy business owners and retirees, all living together with those requiring affordable homes. It supports 2,000 jobs in 80 businesses, meaning that many people have employment opportunities within walking distance of their homes.¹


The practice of scattering affordable homes throughout a neighborhood is known as “pepper-potting,” and it has several clear advantages. First, families requiring affordable homes are not stigmatized by having to live in an identifiable subsidized residence. Second, poverty is not concentrated, avoiding the problem known in the UK as the “sink estate” — an affordable complex where people tend to become trapped, lacking in opportunity. Third, as a result, objections by surrounding neighborhood stakeholders to affordable housing and its perceived impacts is likely to be vastly reduced or nonexistent. Fourth, it is easier to maintain a finer grain and greater variety of dwelling, including different sizes, types and locations to suit different people at different stages of life. This is also beneficial for the variety and complexity of the neighborhood fabric, which is not dominated by large monolithic “social-housing” buildings.


However, there are challenges to this model. First, there are diseconomies of scale in location that have to be managed with careful planning, and met with economies of scale in management procedures. For example, a single agency may “bundle” many units, and consolidate the servicing of the buildings, management, and other functions. Second, the units themselves need to be protected from speculative gains in price. If not, they may become unaffordable even to those with vouchers. There are a number of ways to create these affordability protections, including single agency ownership, a Community Land Trust, a land covenant restricting sales price increases, and similar mechanisms.


In addition, of course, it is essential to remove barriers to affordability from the construction and permitting process itself, including Entitlement Streamlining, and other forms of cost reductions. It is also important to recognize the dynamics of property markets and the need for adequate housing supply, not focused only in the expensive cores but well-distributed across a Polycentric Region.



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Therefore:

When providing affordable housing, avoid single-income complexes. Instead, “pepper-pot” units throughout neighborhoods — either managed by non-profit agencies, or sold with controls over the value of the land. Also provide specific targeted subsidies to individuals as needed, and include mechanisms for housing cost reductions.


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Use the Community Land Trust and Multi-Family Infill to provide additional sites for affordable homes. …




¹ See https://duchyofcornwall.org/poundbury.html



SECTION I:

PATTERNS OF SCALE


1. REGIONAL PATTERNS

Define the large-scale spatial organization…

1.1. POLYCENTRIC REGION

1.2. BLUE-GREEN NETWORK

1.3. MOBILITY CORRIDOR

1.4. 400M THROUGH STREET NETWORK

2. URBAN PATTERNS

Establish essential urban characteristics…

2.1. WALKABLE MULTI-MOBILITY

2.2. LEVEL CITY

2.3. PUBLIC SPACE SYSTEM

2.4. BIOPHILIC URBANISM

3. STREET PATTERNS

Identify and allocate street types…

3.1.URBAN GREENWAY

3.2. MULTI-WAY BOULEVARD

3.3. AVENUE

3.4. SHARED SPACE LANE

4. NEIGHBORHOOD PATTERNS

Define neighborhood-scale elements…

4.1. STREET AS CENTER

4.2. PEDESTRIAN SANCTUARY

4.3. NEIGHBORHOOD SQUARE

4.4. NEIGHBORHOOD PARK

5. SPECIAL USE PATTERNS

Integrate unique urban elements with care…

5.1. SCHOOL CAMPUS

5.2. MARKET CENTER

5.3. INDUSTRIAL AREA

5.4. HOSPITAL

6. PUBLIC SPACE PATTERNS

Establish the character of the crucial public realm…

6.1. PLACE NETWORK

6.2. WALKABLE STREETSCAPE

6.3. MOVABLE SEATING

6.4. CAPILLARY PATHWAY

7. BLOCK AND PLOT PATTERNS

Lay out the detailed structure of property lines…

7.1. SMALL BLOCKS

7.2. PERIMETER BLOCK

7.3. SMALL PLOTS

7.4. MID-BLOCK ALLEY

8. STREETSCAPE PATTERNS

Configure the street as a welcoming place…

8.1. STREET AS ROOM

8.2. TERMINATED VISTA

8.3. STREET TREES

8.4. STREET FURNISHINGS

9. BUILDING PATTERNS

Lay out appropriate urban buildings…

9.1. PERIMETER BUILDING

9.2. ARCADE BUILDING

9.3. COURTYARD BUILDING

9.4. ROW BUILDING

10. BUILDING EDGE PATTERNS

Create interior and exterior connectivity…

10.1. INDOOR-OUTDOOR AMBIGUITY

10.2. CIRCULATION NETWORK

10.3. LAYERED ZONES

10.4. PASSAGEWAY VIEW



SECTION II:

PATTERNS OF MULTIPLE SCALE


11. GEOMETRIC PATTERNS

Build in coherent geometries at all scales…

11.1. LOCAL SYMMETRY

11.2. SMALL GROUPS OF ELEMENTS

11.3. FRACTAL PATTERN

11.4. FRAMING

12. AFFORDANCE PATTERNS

Build in user capacity to shape the environment…

12.1. HANDLES

12.2. CO-PRODUCTION

12.3. FRIENDLY SURFACES

12.4. MALLEABILITY

13. RETROFIT PATTERNS

Revitalize and improve existing urban assets …

13.1. SLUM UPGRADE

13.2. SPRAWL RETROFIT

13.3. URBAN REGENERATION

13.4. URBAN CONSOLIDATION

14. INFORMAL GROWTH PATTERNS

Accommodate “bottom-up” urban growth…

14.1. LAND TENURE

14.2. UTILITIES FIRST

14.3. DATA WITH THE PEOPLE

14.4. INCREMENTAL SELF-BUILD

15. CONSTRUCTION PATTERNS

Use the building process to enrich the result…

15.1. DESIGN-BUILD ADAPTATION

15.2. HUMAN-SCALE DETAIL

15.3. CONSTRUCTION ORNAMENT

15.4. COMPLEX MATERIALS



SECTION III:

PATTERNS OF PROCESS


16. IMPLEMENTATION TOOL PATTERNS

Use tools to achieve successful results…

16.1. FORM-BASED CODE

16.2. ENTITLEMENT STREAMLINING

16.3. NEIGHBORHOOD PLANNING CENTER

16.4. COMMUNITY MOCKUP

17. PROJECT ECONOMICS PATTERNS

Create flows of money that support urban quality…

17.1. TAX-INCREMENT FINANCING

17.2. LAND VALUE CAPTURE

17.3. EXTERNALITY VALUATION

17.4. ECONOMIES OF PLACE AND DIFFERENTIATION

18. PLACE GOVERNANCE PATTERNS

Processes for making and managing places…

18.1. SUBSIDIARITY

18.2. POLYCENTRIC GOVERNANCE

18.3. PUBLIC-PRIVATE PLACE MANAGEMENT

18.4. INFORMAL STEWARDSHIP

19. AFFORDABILITY PATTERNS

Build in affordability for all incomes…

19.1. INTEGRATED AFFORDABILITY

19.2. COMMUNITY LAND TRUST

19.3. MULTI-FAMILY INFILL

19.4. SPECULATION TAX

20. NEW TECHNOLOGY PATTERNS

Integrate new systems without damaging old ones…

20.1. SMART AV SYSTEM

20.2. RESPONSIVE TRANSPORTATION NETWORK COMPANY

20.3. AUGMENTED REALITY DESIGN

20.4. CITIZEN DATA