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10.3. Layered Zones

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(Weitergeleitet von Layered Zones)

Along Walkable Streetscape, and within Circulation Network, there is a need to articulate the layers of space, especially layers of public to private.


10 3 01 Layered Zones.jpg


Problem-statement: People have a basic psychological need to experience layers of space. This need is especially acute at the edges of buildings.


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Discussion:The experience of layers is one of the most fundamental of human experiences, with its roots deep in our evolutionary history. It seems closely related to the need to experience enclosure, and to define and control our layers of privacy. It is also closely related to our preference to seek out the most protective parts of a space, which often occur at the edges of different layers — a phenomenon known as thigmotaxis.¹ Layers of space can also exist as articulations of room-like zones, as described in Place Network. We can see quite complex examples of these layers in some of the best and most active streetscapes, as well as in other exterior and interior spaces.


10 3 02 Layered Zones.jpg
The complex layered zones shown in the photo at the beginning of this pattern.


In his four-volume book The Nature of Order: An Essay on the Art of Building and the Nature of the Universe, Christopher Alexander considered some of the broader geometrical forces that shape human as well as natural environments. He noted that all complex systems have very similar structural rules. Working systems are typically layered, having multiple levels of scale and interconnected component subsystems. Their morphology frequently reveals marvelous solutions to connecting distinct subsystems through a semi-permeable membrane. Human spaces, it turns out, are really no different.


Typically, the layered zones of a space help to define a complex, tissue-like transition between the most public spaces (e.g the street) and the most private ones (e.g. the most private rooms). They help us to become comfortable in choosing our degree of exposure or protection, and in carrying out other activities in the most appropriate and comfortable situation. But layered zones can also exist in entirely public spaces, like a park, and entirely private ones, like an interior space articulated into layered zones with columns.


10 3 03 Layered Zones.jpg
Layered zones created by columns define the entry inside a building.


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Therefore:

Create layered zones of space, especially where articulations of gradations of privacy are required, or where definition of spaces is needed (such as at the edges of parks and other public spaces). Articulate these zones with columns, railings, fencing, vegetation, elevation changes, and other clear demarcations. But keep a connection as well as a separation of the layers.


10 3 04 Layered Zones.jpg


Fill the layered zones with Human-Scale Detail and Construction Ornament. …




¹ As discussed previously in Arcade Building, our colleagues Ann Sussman and Justin Hollander describe this phenomenon and provide additional research citations in Sussman, A. & Hollander, J.B. (2015) Cognitive Architecture. New York: Routledge.



SECTION I:

PATTERNS OF SCALE


1. REGIONAL PATTERNS

Define the large-scale spatial organization…

1.1. POLYCENTRIC REGION

1.2. BLUE-GREEN NETWORK

1.3. MOBILITY CORRIDOR

1.4. 400M THROUGH STREET NETWORK

2. URBAN PATTERNS

Establish essential urban characteristics…

2.1. WALKABLE MULTI-MOBILITY

2.2. LEVEL CITY

2.3. PUBLIC SPACE SYSTEM

2.4. BIOPHILIC URBANISM

3. STREET PATTERNS

Identify and allocate street types…

3.1.URBAN GREENWAY

3.2. MULTI-WAY BOULEVARD

3.3. AVENUE

3.4. SHARED SPACE LANE

4. NEIGHBORHOOD PATTERNS

Define neighborhood-scale elements…

4.1. STREET AS CENTER

4.2. PEDESTRIAN SANCTUARY

4.3. NEIGHBORHOOD SQUARE

4.4. NEIGHBORHOOD PARK

5. SPECIAL USE PATTERNS

Integrate unique urban elements with care…

5.1. SCHOOL CAMPUS

5.2. MARKET CENTER

5.3. INDUSTRIAL AREA

5.4. HOSPITAL

6. PUBLIC SPACE PATTERNS

Establish the character of the crucial public realm…

6.1. PLACE NETWORK

6.2. WALKABLE STREETSCAPE

6.3. MOVABLE SEATING

6.4. CAPILLARY PATHWAY

7. BLOCK AND PLOT PATTERNS

Lay out the detailed structure of property lines…

7.1. SMALL BLOCKS

7.2. PERIMETER BLOCK

7.3. SMALL PLOTS

7.4. MID-BLOCK ALLEY

8. STREETSCAPE PATTERNS

Configure the street as a welcoming place…

8.1. STREET AS ROOM

8.2. TERMINATED VISTA

8.3. STREET TREES

8.4. STREET FURNISHINGS

9. BUILDING PATTERNS

Lay out appropriate urban buildings…

9.1. PERIMETER BUILDING

9.2. ARCADE BUILDING

9.3. COURTYARD BUILDING

9.4. ROW BUILDING

10. BUILDING EDGE PATTERNS

Create interior and exterior connectivity…

10.1. INDOOR-OUTDOOR AMBIGUITY

10.2. CIRCULATION NETWORK

10.3. LAYERED ZONES

10.4. PASSAGEWAY VIEW



SECTION II:

PATTERNS OF MULTIPLE SCALE


11. GEOMETRIC PATTERNS

Build in coherent geometries at all scales…

11.1. LOCAL SYMMETRY

11.2. SMALL GROUPS OF ELEMENTS

11.3. FRACTAL PATTERN

11.4. FRAMING

12. AFFORDANCE PATTERNS

Build in user capacity to shape the environment…

12.1. HANDLES

12.2. CO-PRODUCTION

12.3. FRIENDLY SURFACES

12.4. MALLEABILITY

13. RETROFIT PATTERNS

Revitalize and improve existing urban assets …

13.1. SLUM UPGRADE

13.2. SPRAWL RETROFIT

13.3. URBAN REGENERATION

13.4. URBAN CONSOLIDATION

14. INFORMAL GROWTH PATTERNS

Accommodate “bottom-up” urban growth…

14.1. LAND TENURE

14.2. UTILITIES FIRST

14.3. DATA WITH THE PEOPLE

14.4. INCREMENTAL SELF-BUILD

15. CONSTRUCTION PATTERNS

Use the building process to enrich the result…

15.1. DESIGN-BUILD ADAPTATION

15.2. HUMAN-SCALE DETAIL

15.3. CONSTRUCTION ORNAMENT

15.4. COMPLEX MATERIALS



SECTION III:

PATTERNS OF PROCESS


16. IMPLEMENTATION TOOL PATTERNS

Use tools to achieve successful results…

16.1. FORM-BASED CODE

16.2. ENTITLEMENT STREAMLINING

16.3. NEIGHBORHOOD PLANNING CENTER

16.4. COMMUNITY MOCKUP

17. PROJECT ECONOMICS PATTERNS

Create flows of money that support urban quality…

17.1. TAX-INCREMENT FINANCING

17.2. LAND VALUE CAPTURE

17.3. EXTERNALITY VALUATION

17.4. ECONOMIES OF PLACE AND DIFFERENTIATION

18. PLACE GOVERNANCE PATTERNS

Processes for making and managing places…

18.1. SUBSIDIARITY

18.2. POLYCENTRIC GOVERNANCE

18.3. PUBLIC-PRIVATE PLACE MANAGEMENT

18.4. INFORMAL STEWARDSHIP

19. AFFORDABILITY PATTERNS

Build in affordability for all incomes…

19.1. INTEGRATED AFFORDABILITY

19.2. COMMUNITY LAND TRUST

19.3. MULTI-FAMILY INFILL

19.4. SPECULATION TAX

20. NEW TECHNOLOGY PATTERNS

Integrate new systems without damaging old ones…

20.1. SMART AV SYSTEM

20.2. RESPONSIVE TRANSPORTATION NETWORK COMPANY

20.3. AUGMENTED REALITY DESIGN

20.4. CITIZEN DATA