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5.2. Market Center

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(Weitergeleitet von Market Center)

Along the active edges of a Pedestrian Sanctuary, where the demand for market centers is significant, and transit service and mobility are highest, create integrated complexes of buildings that serve as market centers.


05 2 01 Market Center.jpg


Problem-statement: Shopping is one of the most fundamental activities of daily life, and it should be accessible, convenient, safe and attractive. It should not be allowed to destroy the quality and pedestrian scale of the surrounding neighborhood.


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Discussion:: Too often, shopping centers have been allowed to grow monstrous, and create urban dead zones at their edges: parking lots, concentrated vehicular arterials, and other disruptions. This is unnecessary. A market center can be successfully integrated with the surrounding pedestrian fabric, by providing multiple blocks connected by subterranean levels and bridges.


The original plan for shopping “malls” came from the architect Victor Gruen, who was — ironically — seeking to reproduce the car-free ambience of European village squares. Of course, nearby residents pay a heavy price, for the edges of these inward-turning megastructures draw the life from their surroundings, and create large dead zones within the urban fabric — either ugly and unecological parking lots, or inactive streets, or both.


The final irony is that enclosed shopping malls are becoming much less popular, and buyers increasingly crave real streets with vibrant activities. In response, some shopping mall developers have created “lifestyle malls” built around open streets, only some of which are pedestrian-only. This is a step in the right direction — although any market center will thrive on adjacency and mix, rather than a segregated monoculture of whatever kind.¹


05 2 02 Market Center.jpg
Left, a typical shopping “mall” outside of Portland, Oregon, surrounded by an ocean of parking lots. Right, an integrated shopping center with similarly large stores, but integrated into the surrounding urban fabric of downtown Portland. Multiple blocks are connected by bridges and tunnels. Parking is accommodated with garages built into the urban fabric, and many people arrive by transit, walking or bike. The problem is not simply that malls have roofs (typically of glass). Indeed, some of the most successful and well-loved market centers in the world have glazed roof enclosures, among them the Galleria Vittorio Emanuele in Milan, Italy. So do many city-operated market centers. The important factor is the connectivity of the center to its surrounding urban fabric, and its mix of lively activities at many hours of the day.


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Therefore:

Do not build gigantic, isolated shopping “malls”, which are cut off from the urban fabric surrounding them, and damaging to it. Instead build lively market centers, allowing different buildings to span over (or even under) the street network.


05 2 03 Market Center.jpg


Assure that the edges of the centers have a Walkable Streetscape. Articulate these spaces, and the spaces within, with a Place Network




¹ See for example Southworth, M. (2005). Reinventing main street: From mall to townscape mall. Journal of Urban Design, 10(2), 151-170.



SECTION I:

PATTERNS OF SCALE


1. REGIONAL PATTERNS

Define the large-scale spatial organization…

1.1. POLYCENTRIC REGION

1.2. BLUE-GREEN NETWORK

1.3. MOBILITY CORRIDOR

1.4. 400M THROUGH STREET NETWORK

2. URBAN PATTERNS

Establish essential urban characteristics…

2.1. WALKABLE MULTI-MOBILITY

2.2. LEVEL CITY

2.3. PUBLIC SPACE SYSTEM

2.4. BIOPHILIC URBANISM

3. STREET PATTERNS

Identify and allocate street types…

3.1.URBAN GREENWAY

3.2. MULTI-WAY BOULEVARD

3.3. AVENUE

3.4. SHARED SPACE LANE

4. NEIGHBORHOOD PATTERNS

Define neighborhood-scale elements…

4.1. STREET AS CENTER

4.2. PEDESTRIAN SANCTUARY

4.3. NEIGHBORHOOD SQUARE

4.4. NEIGHBORHOOD PARK

5. SPECIAL USE PATTERNS

Integrate unique urban elements with care…

5.1. SCHOOL CAMPUS

5.2. MARKET CENTER

5.3. INDUSTRIAL AREA

5.4. HOSPITAL

6. PUBLIC SPACE PATTERNS

Establish the character of the crucial public realm…

6.1. PLACE NETWORK

6.2. WALKABLE STREETSCAPE

6.3. MOVABLE SEATING

6.4. CAPILLARY PATHWAY

7. BLOCK AND PLOT PATTERNS

Lay out the detailed structure of property lines…

7.1. SMALL BLOCKS

7.2. PERIMETER BLOCK

7.3. SMALL PLOTS

7.4. MID-BLOCK ALLEY

8. STREETSCAPE PATTERNS

Configure the street as a welcoming place…

8.1. STREET AS ROOM

8.2. TERMINATED VISTA

8.3. STREET TREES

8.4. STREET FURNISHINGS

9. BUILDING PATTERNS

Lay out appropriate urban buildings…

9.1. PERIMETER BUILDING

9.2. ARCADE BUILDING

9.3. COURTYARD BUILDING

9.4. ROW BUILDING

10. BUILDING EDGE PATTERNS

Create interior and exterior connectivity…

10.1. INDOOR-OUTDOOR AMBIGUITY

10.2. CIRCULATION NETWORK

10.3. LAYERED ZONES

10.4. PASSAGEWAY VIEW



SECTION II:

PATTERNS OF MULTIPLE SCALE


11. GEOMETRIC PATTERNS

Build in coherent geometries at all scales…

11.1. LOCAL SYMMETRY

11.2. SMALL GROUPS OF ELEMENTS

11.3. FRACTAL PATTERN

11.4. FRAMING

12. AFFORDANCE PATTERNS

Build in user capacity to shape the environment…

12.1. HANDLES

12.2. CO-PRODUCTION

12.3. FRIENDLY SURFACES

12.4. MALLEABILITY

13. RETROFIT PATTERNS

Revitalize and improve existing urban assets …

13.1. SLUM UPGRADE

13.2. SPRAWL RETROFIT

13.3. URBAN REGENERATION

13.4. URBAN CONSOLIDATION

14. INFORMAL GROWTH PATTERNS

Accommodate “bottom-up” urban growth…

14.1. LAND TENURE

14.2. UTILITIES FIRST

14.3. DATA WITH THE PEOPLE

14.4. INCREMENTAL SELF-BUILD

15. CONSTRUCTION PATTERNS

Use the building process to enrich the result…

15.1. DESIGN-BUILD ADAPTATION

15.2. HUMAN-SCALE DETAIL

15.3. CONSTRUCTION ORNAMENT

15.4. COMPLEX MATERIALS



SECTION III:

PATTERNS OF PROCESS


16. IMPLEMENTATION TOOL PATTERNS

Use tools to achieve successful results…

16.1. FORM-BASED CODE

16.2. ENTITLEMENT STREAMLINING

16.3. NEIGHBORHOOD PLANNING CENTER

16.4. COMMUNITY MOCKUP

17. PROJECT ECONOMICS PATTERNS

Create flows of money that support urban quality…

17.1. TAX-INCREMENT FINANCING

17.2. LAND VALUE CAPTURE

17.3. EXTERNALITY VALUATION

17.4. ECONOMIES OF PLACE AND DIFFERENTIATION

18. PLACE GOVERNANCE PATTERNS

Processes for making and managing places…

18.1. SUBSIDIARITY

18.2. POLYCENTRIC GOVERNANCE

18.3. PUBLIC-PRIVATE PLACE MANAGEMENT

18.4. INFORMAL STEWARDSHIP

19. AFFORDABILITY PATTERNS

Build in affordability for all incomes…

19.1. INTEGRATED AFFORDABILITY

19.2. COMMUNITY LAND TRUST

19.3. MULTI-FAMILY INFILL

19.4. SPECULATION TAX

20. NEW TECHNOLOGY PATTERNS

Integrate new systems without damaging old ones…

20.1. SMART AV SYSTEM

20.2. RESPONSIVE TRANSPORTATION NETWORK COMPANY

20.3. AUGMENTED REALITY DESIGN

20.4. CITIZEN DATA