Aktionen

4.4. Neighborhood Park

Aus Pattern Language Wiki

(Weitergeleitet von Neighborhood Park)

Within the Pedestrian Sanctuary, provide amenities for recreation and gathering.


04 4 01 neighbourhood park.jpg


Problem-statement: At the scale of a neighborhood, there is a need for quieter recreational spaces with ample vegetation, and more protected from faster-moving vehicles.


❖ ❖ ❖


Discussion:: Neighborhood parks are not the same as regional parks, which may be quite large. Generally, neighborhood parks can range from one hectare (2.5 acres) to as small as 20 square meters (200 square feet) or the size of a “pocket park”. The important factor is that every residence is within about 250 meters, or about 750 feet, of one of these parks. A secondary factor is that these spaces are focal points for the surrounding neighborhood, allowing quieter family-scale gatherings and informal sports events.


Overwhelming scientific evidence links human health to intimate exposure to natural green vegetation, as discussed in the pattern Biophilic Urbanism. At the same time, people will not use a park frequently unless it is close to their home, and easily accessible by foot. This implies a need for local neighborhood parks distributed regularly throughout the city — close enough for everyone to access one or more by walking. That suggests a distribution of approximately 400 meters (1300 feet), so that each home is within 200 meters (650 feet) of one or more parks.


A key requirement for neighborhood parks is that they are visible from nearby residences, and there is an opportunity for residents to provide stewardship for their security and care. There is also a need to have active uses along their edges, so that these edges do not become dead zones, severing and isolating the parks from the surrounding neighborhood.¹


Neighborhood parks can also provide pavilions and other shelters to allow for small-scale events such as weddings, acoustic music performances, and other activities that are compatible with surrounding residences.


04 4 02 neighbourhood park.jpg
Pavilions in a neighborhood park in Hillsboro, Oregon, that hosts weddings, acoustic music events and other neighborhood-scale activities.


❖ ❖ ❖


Therefore:

Within the sanctuaries, create neighborhood parks that serve as quiet oases for residents, with ample greenery and natural characteristics such as ponds and waterfalls. Assure that one of these parks is within about 200 meters (650 feet) of every residence. Provide for recreational activities including play structures for children. Provide sheltered spaces for activities including acoustic music and small neighborhood gatherings.


04 4 03 neighbourhood park.jpg


Create room-like spaces, especially at the edges, forming a Place Network




¹ One of the seminal accounts of neighborhood park structure and its requirements was provided by Jane Jacobs in her landmark The Death and Life of Great American Cities, and especially , Chapter 5, “The Uses of Neighborhood Parks.” See Jacobs, J. (1961) The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York: Random House.



SECTION I:

PATTERNS OF SCALE


1. REGIONAL PATTERNS

Define the large-scale spatial organization…

1.1. POLYCENTRIC REGION

1.2. BLUE-GREEN NETWORK

1.3. MOBILITY CORRIDOR

1.4. 400M THROUGH STREET NETWORK

2. URBAN PATTERNS

Establish essential urban characteristics…

2.1. WALKABLE MULTI-MOBILITY

2.2. LEVEL CITY

2.3. PUBLIC SPACE SYSTEM

2.4. BIOPHILIC URBANISM

3. STREET PATTERNS

Identify and allocate street types…

3.1.URBAN GREENWAY

3.2. MULTI-WAY BOULEVARD

3.3. AVENUE

3.4. SHARED SPACE LANE

4. NEIGHBORHOOD PATTERNS

Define neighborhood-scale elements…

4.1. STREET AS CENTER

4.2. PEDESTRIAN SANCTUARY

4.3. NEIGHBORHOOD SQUARE

4.4. NEIGHBORHOOD PARK

5. SPECIAL USE PATTERNS

Integrate unique urban elements with care…

5.1. SCHOOL CAMPUS

5.2. MARKET CENTER

5.3. INDUSTRIAL AREA

5.4. HOSPITAL

6. PUBLIC SPACE PATTERNS

Establish the character of the crucial public realm…

6.1. PLACE NETWORK

6.2. WALKABLE STREETSCAPE

6.3. MOVABLE SEATING

6.4. CAPILLARY PATHWAY

7. BLOCK AND PLOT PATTERNS

Lay out the detailed structure of property lines…

7.1. SMALL BLOCKS

7.2. PERIMETER BLOCK

7.3. SMALL PLOTS

7.4. MID-BLOCK ALLEY

8. STREETSCAPE PATTERNS

Configure the street as a welcoming place…

8.1. STREET AS ROOM

8.2. TERMINATED VISTA

8.3. STREET TREES

8.4. STREET FURNISHINGS

9. BUILDING PATTERNS

Lay out appropriate urban buildings…

9.1. PERIMETER BUILDING

9.2. ARCADE BUILDING

9.3. COURTYARD BUILDING

9.4. ROW BUILDING

10. BUILDING EDGE PATTERNS

Create interior and exterior connectivity…

10.1. INDOOR-OUTDOOR AMBIGUITY

10.2. CIRCULATION NETWORK

10.3. LAYERED ZONES

10.4. PASSAGEWAY VIEW



SECTION II:

PATTERNS OF MULTIPLE SCALE


11. GEOMETRIC PATTERNS

Build in coherent geometries at all scales…

11.1. LOCAL SYMMETRY

11.2. SMALL GROUPS OF ELEMENTS

11.3. FRACTAL PATTERN

11.4. FRAMING

12. AFFORDANCE PATTERNS

Build in user capacity to shape the environment…

12.1. HANDLES

12.2. CO-PRODUCTION

12.3. FRIENDLY SURFACES

12.4. MALLEABILITY

13. RETROFIT PATTERNS

Revitalize and improve existing urban assets …

13.1. SLUM UPGRADE

13.2. SPRAWL RETROFIT

13.3. URBAN REGENERATION

13.4. URBAN CONSOLIDATION

14. INFORMAL GROWTH PATTERNS

Accommodate “bottom-up” urban growth…

14.1. LAND TENURE

14.2. UTILITIES FIRST

14.3. DATA WITH THE PEOPLE

14.4. INCREMENTAL SELF-BUILD

15. CONSTRUCTION PATTERNS

Use the building process to enrich the result…

15.1. DESIGN-BUILD ADAPTATION

15.2. HUMAN-SCALE DETAIL

15.3. CONSTRUCTION ORNAMENT

15.4. COMPLEX MATERIALS



SECTION III:

PATTERNS OF PROCESS


16. IMPLEMENTATION TOOL PATTERNS

Use tools to achieve successful results…

16.1. FORM-BASED CODE

16.2. ENTITLEMENT STREAMLINING

16.3. NEIGHBORHOOD PLANNING CENTER

16.4. COMMUNITY MOCKUP

17. PROJECT ECONOMICS PATTERNS

Create flows of money that support urban quality…

17.1. TAX-INCREMENT FINANCING

17.2. LAND VALUE CAPTURE

17.3. EXTERNALITY VALUATION

17.4. ECONOMIES OF PLACE AND DIFFERENTIATION

18. PLACE GOVERNANCE PATTERNS

Processes for making and managing places…

18.1. SUBSIDIARITY

18.2. POLYCENTRIC GOVERNANCE

18.3. PUBLIC-PRIVATE PLACE MANAGEMENT

18.4. INFORMAL STEWARDSHIP

19. AFFORDABILITY PATTERNS

Build in affordability for all incomes…

19.1. INTEGRATED AFFORDABILITY

19.2. COMMUNITY LAND TRUST

19.3. MULTI-FAMILY INFILL

19.4. SPECULATION TAX

20. NEW TECHNOLOGY PATTERNS

Integrate new systems without damaging old ones…

20.1. SMART AV SYSTEM

20.2. RESPONSIVE TRANSPORTATION NETWORK COMPANY

20.3. AUGMENTED REALITY DESIGN

20.4. CITIZEN DATA