Aktionen

20.2. Responsive Transportation Network Company

Aus Pattern Language Wiki

(Weitergeleitet von Responsive Transportation Network Company)

Walkable Multi-Mobility can benefit from including transportation network companies as well as other transportation choices.


20 2 01 Responsive Transportation Network Company.jpg


Problem-statement: Transportation network companies (TNCs) like Uber and Lyft have the capacity to be beneficial, since their digital capabilities are sophisticated and flexible. But these companies also have a number of important drawbacks. At worst they are simply ways to deregulate taxicab companies, and put many people out of work.


❖ ❖ ❖


Discussion: We must remember that the precedent for transportation network companies (TNCs) has existed for many years, though often ignored in the developed world. A parallel, unregulated fleet of private part-time taxis and minivans, often called “pirates”, functions throughout the world, most notably in developing countries. The fact that it exists reflects a clear market demand for this kind of service. Attempts by governments to prevent these illegal services from operating have been ineffective at best. Yet this phenomenon reveals that informal transport networks do tend to arise whenever there is a need for them. It is therefore better to plan with these informal forces in mind and to regulate the problems that may occur, rather than to insist on one rigid model of transportation.


One of the most important problems is that these companies are in competition with existing taxi companies, which often have fairer employee pay and benefits, and other superior employee rights. The local governments have an obligation to “level the playing field” and make certain that all employees are treated with minimum standards of fairness.


A further problem looms ahead as these and other companies pursue a path toward autonomous vehicles — meaning that many more drivers may be out of work. Of course, technology often displaces many people, and this is not a new problem. But it is one that requires careful management and transition, assuring that those displaced have other opportunities.


There is also some troubling evidence that TNCs might actually contribute to traffic congestion, since their drivers are eager to “prowl” certain areas in order to get customers. Because TNC services are also more convenient and less expensive, they may contribute to “induced demand” for automobile travel that might otherwise occur via other modes.¹


Of particular importance is that the TNCs integrate into the regional transportation system, and have data that responds to the system’s needs. For example, TNC services can be coordinated with existing fixed transit, and even supplement it with multiple-passenger AVs (not unlike today’s shuttle vans). In addition, existing taxi companies might still employ driver-escorts to assist those who need special attention or assistance (for example, assisting the elderly or the infirm, or those with baggage). In such a system, TNCs could enhance, and not disrupt, existing transportation networks.²


❖ ❖ ❖


Therefore:

Do not allow a free-for-all with transportation network companies. Instead, require them — through thoughtful regulation and incentives — to be responsive to the regional transportation system, and to offer a complementary choice of travel for those who need it.


20 2 02 Responsive Transportation Network Company.jpg


Integrate transportation network companies into the urban system using Citizen Data. …




¹ See Erhardt, G. D., Roy, S., Cooper, D., Sana, B., Chen, M., & Castiglione, J. (2019). Do transportation network companies decrease or increase congestion?. Science Advances, 5(5), eaau2670.


² See for example Schaller, B. (2018). The new automobility: Lyft, Uber and the future of American cities. Washington, D.C.: Transportation Research Board.



SECTION I:

PATTERNS OF SCALE


1. REGIONAL PATTERNS

Define the large-scale spatial organization…

1.1. POLYCENTRIC REGION

1.2. BLUE-GREEN NETWORK

1.3. MOBILITY CORRIDOR

1.4. 400M THROUGH STREET NETWORK

2. URBAN PATTERNS

Establish essential urban characteristics…

2.1. WALKABLE MULTI-MOBILITY

2.2. LEVEL CITY

2.3. PUBLIC SPACE SYSTEM

2.4. BIOPHILIC URBANISM

3. STREET PATTERNS

Identify and allocate street types…

3.1.URBAN GREENWAY

3.2. MULTI-WAY BOULEVARD

3.3. AVENUE

3.4. SHARED SPACE LANE

4. NEIGHBORHOOD PATTERNS

Define neighborhood-scale elements…

4.1. STREET AS CENTER

4.2. PEDESTRIAN SANCTUARY

4.3. NEIGHBORHOOD SQUARE

4.4. NEIGHBORHOOD PARK

5. SPECIAL USE PATTERNS

Integrate unique urban elements with care…

5.1. SCHOOL CAMPUS

5.2. MARKET CENTER

5.3. INDUSTRIAL AREA

5.4. HOSPITAL

6. PUBLIC SPACE PATTERNS

Establish the character of the crucial public realm…

6.1. PLACE NETWORK

6.2. WALKABLE STREETSCAPE

6.3. MOVABLE SEATING

6.4. CAPILLARY PATHWAY

7. BLOCK AND PLOT PATTERNS

Lay out the detailed structure of property lines…

7.1. SMALL BLOCKS

7.2. PERIMETER BLOCK

7.3. SMALL PLOTS

7.4. MID-BLOCK ALLEY

8. STREETSCAPE PATTERNS

Configure the street as a welcoming place…

8.1. STREET AS ROOM

8.2. TERMINATED VISTA

8.3. STREET TREES

8.4. STREET FURNISHINGS

9. BUILDING PATTERNS

Lay out appropriate urban buildings…

9.1. PERIMETER BUILDING

9.2. ARCADE BUILDING

9.3. COURTYARD BUILDING

9.4. ROW BUILDING

10. BUILDING EDGE PATTERNS

Create interior and exterior connectivity…

10.1. INDOOR-OUTDOOR AMBIGUITY

10.2. CIRCULATION NETWORK

10.3. LAYERED ZONES

10.4. PASSAGEWAY VIEW



SECTION II:

PATTERNS OF MULTIPLE SCALE


11. GEOMETRIC PATTERNS

Build in coherent geometries at all scales…

11.1. LOCAL SYMMETRY

11.2. SMALL GROUPS OF ELEMENTS

11.3. FRACTAL PATTERN

11.4. FRAMING

12. AFFORDANCE PATTERNS

Build in user capacity to shape the environment…

12.1. HANDLES

12.2. CO-PRODUCTION

12.3. FRIENDLY SURFACES

12.4. MALLEABILITY

13. RETROFIT PATTERNS

Revitalize and improve existing urban assets …

13.1. SLUM UPGRADE

13.2. SPRAWL RETROFIT

13.3. URBAN REGENERATION

13.4. URBAN CONSOLIDATION

14. INFORMAL GROWTH PATTERNS

Accommodate “bottom-up” urban growth…

14.1. LAND TENURE

14.2. UTILITIES FIRST

14.3. DATA WITH THE PEOPLE

14.4. INCREMENTAL SELF-BUILD

15. CONSTRUCTION PATTERNS

Use the building process to enrich the result…

15.1. DESIGN-BUILD ADAPTATION

15.2. HUMAN-SCALE DETAIL

15.3. CONSTRUCTION ORNAMENT

15.4. COMPLEX MATERIALS



SECTION III:

PATTERNS OF PROCESS


16. IMPLEMENTATION TOOL PATTERNS

Use tools to achieve successful results…

16.1. FORM-BASED CODE

16.2. ENTITLEMENT STREAMLINING

16.3. NEIGHBORHOOD PLANNING CENTER

16.4. COMMUNITY MOCKUP

17. PROJECT ECONOMICS PATTERNS

Create flows of money that support urban quality…

17.1. TAX-INCREMENT FINANCING

17.2. LAND VALUE CAPTURE

17.3. EXTERNALITY VALUATION

17.4. ECONOMIES OF PLACE AND DIFFERENTIATION

18. PLACE GOVERNANCE PATTERNS

Processes for making and managing places…

18.1. SUBSIDIARITY

18.2. POLYCENTRIC GOVERNANCE

18.3. PUBLIC-PRIVATE PLACE MANAGEMENT

18.4. INFORMAL STEWARDSHIP

19. AFFORDABILITY PATTERNS

Build in affordability for all incomes…

19.1. INTEGRATED AFFORDABILITY

19.2. COMMUNITY LAND TRUST

19.3. MULTI-FAMILY INFILL

19.4. SPECULATION TAX

20. NEW TECHNOLOGY PATTERNS

Integrate new systems without damaging old ones…

20.1. SMART AV SYSTEM

20.2. RESPONSIVE TRANSPORTATION NETWORK COMPANY

20.3. AUGMENTED REALITY DESIGN

20.4. CITIZEN DATA