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20.1. Smart AV System

Aus Pattern Language Wiki

(Weitergeleitet von Smart AV System)

Within the Polycentric Region, policies and designs are needed to plan for autonomous vehicles.


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Problem-statement: The future of autonomous vehicles is unclear. If they are widely adopted, they could be a boon to cities — in effect serving as driverless taxis that are more numerous, close-by and convenient. But they could also become nightmares for cities.


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Discussion: The worst case scenario for AVs is that they are used as roving living rooms — roaming around the city, entering drive-through lanes at the whim of their occupants, adding enormously to congestion — which is of little concern to occupants, since the vehicles find their own way around impasses. In this scenario, the number of vehicles on the road would expand enormously, greatly adding to drive times and creating delays for those who do need to get to destinations quickly. This would be an example of the phenomenon of “induced demand” — the appeal of riding in a driverless AV would increase demand, requiring even more traffic infrastructure.


An opposite scenario is that these vehicles are used much more sparingly, more like carshares without the need to drive them — or even go to them. In this scenario, residents might well choose not to own a vehicle, since one would always be available close by, and there would be no need to park the vehicle. This could translate into a significant reduction in the number of vehicles on the road.


Which scenario will become the reality — or will it be something in between? This is the choice we have now, and the answer will depend on the mix of design and policy changes. For example, will we reduce the number of parking spaces, on the basis that fewer cars will require parking? How will that change the design of street sections, especially where parked cars are used as a buffer to protect pedestrians? Will we use AVs for larger groups and fixed routes — for example, multiple-destination shuttle buses and rapid transit vehicles? How will these pathways be accommodated? These and other issues must be addressed.¹


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Therefore:

Do not allow autonomous vehicles to be used as “roving living rooms” by occupants. Institute progressive congestion charges that make it increasingly expensive to remain in a vehicle for more than a reasonable amount of time (with a hardship exception for those who must travel long distances, or travel frequently). Instead, encourage AVs to be used as shared vehicles on a timeshare rental basis. Provide in addition for lower-cost, multiple-passenger AVs such as shuttle buses and fixed-route rapid transit vehicles. In every case, do not allow AVs to degrade the urban fabric, but employ them to protect and enhance existing environments.


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AVs can be used by Responsive Transportation Network Company. …




¹ Research on autonomous vehicles and their impacts on pedestrians and other modes is ongoing, and it is by no means clear yet that this technology will be reliable or helpful. See for example Millard-Ball, A. (2018). Pedestrians, autonomous vehicles, and cities. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 38(1), 6-12.


Image: Bram van Oost via Unsplash



SECTION I:

PATTERNS OF SCALE


1. REGIONAL PATTERNS

Define the large-scale spatial organization…

1.1. POLYCENTRIC REGION

1.2. BLUE-GREEN NETWORK

1.3. MOBILITY CORRIDOR

1.4. 400M THROUGH STREET NETWORK

2. URBAN PATTERNS

Establish essential urban characteristics…

2.1. WALKABLE MULTI-MOBILITY

2.2. LEVEL CITY

2.3. PUBLIC SPACE SYSTEM

2.4. BIOPHILIC URBANISM

3. STREET PATTERNS

Identify and allocate street types…

3.1.URBAN GREENWAY

3.2. MULTI-WAY BOULEVARD

3.3. AVENUE

3.4. SHARED SPACE LANE

4. NEIGHBORHOOD PATTERNS

Define neighborhood-scale elements…

4.1. STREET AS CENTER

4.2. PEDESTRIAN SANCTUARY

4.3. NEIGHBORHOOD SQUARE

4.4. NEIGHBORHOOD PARK

5. SPECIAL USE PATTERNS

Integrate unique urban elements with care…

5.1. SCHOOL CAMPUS

5.2. MARKET CENTER

5.3. INDUSTRIAL AREA

5.4. HOSPITAL

6. PUBLIC SPACE PATTERNS

Establish the character of the crucial public realm…

6.1. PLACE NETWORK

6.2. WALKABLE STREETSCAPE

6.3. MOVABLE SEATING

6.4. CAPILLARY PATHWAY

7. BLOCK AND PLOT PATTERNS

Lay out the detailed structure of property lines…

7.1. SMALL BLOCKS

7.2. PERIMETER BLOCK

7.3. SMALL PLOTS

7.4. MID-BLOCK ALLEY

8. STREETSCAPE PATTERNS

Configure the street as a welcoming place…

8.1. STREET AS ROOM

8.2. TERMINATED VISTA

8.3. STREET TREES

8.4. STREET FURNISHINGS

9. BUILDING PATTERNS

Lay out appropriate urban buildings…

9.1. PERIMETER BUILDING

9.2. ARCADE BUILDING

9.3. COURTYARD BUILDING

9.4. ROW BUILDING

10. BUILDING EDGE PATTERNS

Create interior and exterior connectivity…

10.1. INDOOR-OUTDOOR AMBIGUITY

10.2. CIRCULATION NETWORK

10.3. LAYERED ZONES

10.4. PASSAGEWAY VIEW



SECTION II:

PATTERNS OF MULTIPLE SCALE


11. GEOMETRIC PATTERNS

Build in coherent geometries at all scales…

11.1. LOCAL SYMMETRY

11.2. SMALL GROUPS OF ELEMENTS

11.3. FRACTAL PATTERN

11.4. FRAMING

12. AFFORDANCE PATTERNS

Build in user capacity to shape the environment…

12.1. HANDLES

12.2. CO-PRODUCTION

12.3. FRIENDLY SURFACES

12.4. MALLEABILITY

13. RETROFIT PATTERNS

Revitalize and improve existing urban assets …

13.1. SLUM UPGRADE

13.2. SPRAWL RETROFIT

13.3. URBAN REGENERATION

13.4. URBAN CONSOLIDATION

14. INFORMAL GROWTH PATTERNS

Accommodate “bottom-up” urban growth…

14.1. LAND TENURE

14.2. UTILITIES FIRST

14.3. DATA WITH THE PEOPLE

14.4. INCREMENTAL SELF-BUILD

15. CONSTRUCTION PATTERNS

Use the building process to enrich the result…

15.1. DESIGN-BUILD ADAPTATION

15.2. HUMAN-SCALE DETAIL

15.3. CONSTRUCTION ORNAMENT

15.4. COMPLEX MATERIALS



SECTION III:

PATTERNS OF PROCESS


16. IMPLEMENTATION TOOL PATTERNS

Use tools to achieve successful results…

16.1. FORM-BASED CODE

16.2. ENTITLEMENT STREAMLINING

16.3. NEIGHBORHOOD PLANNING CENTER

16.4. COMMUNITY MOCKUP

17. PROJECT ECONOMICS PATTERNS

Create flows of money that support urban quality…

17.1. TAX-INCREMENT FINANCING

17.2. LAND VALUE CAPTURE

17.3. EXTERNALITY VALUATION

17.4. ECONOMIES OF PLACE AND DIFFERENTIATION

18. PLACE GOVERNANCE PATTERNS

Processes for making and managing places…

18.1. SUBSIDIARITY

18.2. POLYCENTRIC GOVERNANCE

18.3. PUBLIC-PRIVATE PLACE MANAGEMENT

18.4. INFORMAL STEWARDSHIP

19. AFFORDABILITY PATTERNS

Build in affordability for all incomes…

19.1. INTEGRATED AFFORDABILITY

19.2. COMMUNITY LAND TRUST

19.3. MULTI-FAMILY INFILL

19.4. SPECULATION TAX

20. NEW TECHNOLOGY PATTERNS

Integrate new systems without damaging old ones…

20.1. SMART AV SYSTEM

20.2. RESPONSIVE TRANSPORTATION NETWORK COMPANY

20.3. AUGMENTED REALITY DESIGN

20.4. CITIZEN DATA