Aktionen

9.2. Arcade Building

Aus Pattern Language Wiki

(Weitergeleitet von Arcade Building)

Along the edges of the Perimeter Block, there is a need to create a stronger connection between the buildings and the public spaces.


09 2 01 Arcade Building.jpg


Problem-statement: In many areas, there is a need for shelter as well as transitional space between the private interior and public exterior. This can be done with galleries and other porch-like structures, designed as integral elements to the building exteriors.


❖ ❖ ❖


Discussion: Arcade buildings are archetypal structures in many cities. We can think of the famous arcades of Bologna, or the galleries surrounding the plazas of the American Southwest (see photo on next page). They create sheltered places along the street, especially valuable when adjacent to (and overlooking) squares and other public spaces.


We now know that these buildings are archetypal for deep biological reasons. New findings in neuroscience reveal that humans prefer to use paths that also define a spatial sense of place. All animals avoid exposed open space, and prefer to move along protected edges and perimeter boundaries — a phenomenon known as thigmotaxis.¹ For people too, an arcade along the block perimeter provides a most welcoming enveloping space for pedestrian movement. This type of place, with its own characteristics, transitions between the interior of the building and the street. It defines an important intermediate region — one that was lost when well-adapted contextual buildings were replaced by “designed-object” buildings.


However, in designing arcade buildings, care must be taken when arcades front along retail uses that there is adequate visibility. This can be done by ensuring that there is sufficient height to the galleries so that there is adequate light on the retail spaces. In some contexts, however, the customer traffic volume is so high that this is not a concern.


09 2 02 Arcade Building.jpg
Arcade buildings on the plaza in Albuquerque, New Mexico.


❖ ❖ ❖


1 Our colleagues Ann Sussman and Justin Hollander discuss this phenomenon and its relation to urban design at length, with additional research citations, in Sussman, A. & Hollander, J.B. (2015) Cognitive Architecture. New York: Routledge.


Therefore:

Create arcade buildings when there is a need to shelter people adjacent to public spaces, to promote architectural connectivity to the street and the public realm, or to allow gatherings at upper levels, such as restaurants overlooking squares.


09 2 03 Arcade Building.jpg


Use Arcades built into the lower story of a building to make a pedestrian-friendly space. Create a Gallery Surround whenever possible, using porches, awnings and other structures. …




Image: Zoe Lin via Unsplash



SECTION I:

PATTERNS OF SCALE


1. REGIONAL PATTERNS

Define the large-scale spatial organization…

1.1. POLYCENTRIC REGION

1.2. BLUE-GREEN NETWORK

1.3. MOBILITY CORRIDOR

1.4. 400M THROUGH STREET NETWORK

2. URBAN PATTERNS

Establish essential urban characteristics…

2.1. WALKABLE MULTI-MOBILITY

2.2. LEVEL CITY

2.3. PUBLIC SPACE SYSTEM

2.4. BIOPHILIC URBANISM

3. STREET PATTERNS

Identify and allocate street types…

3.1.URBAN GREENWAY

3.2. MULTI-WAY BOULEVARD

3.3. AVENUE

3.4. SHARED SPACE LANE

4. NEIGHBORHOOD PATTERNS

Define neighborhood-scale elements…

4.1. STREET AS CENTER

4.2. PEDESTRIAN SANCTUARY

4.3. NEIGHBORHOOD SQUARE

4.4. NEIGHBORHOOD PARK

5. SPECIAL USE PATTERNS

Integrate unique urban elements with care…

5.1. SCHOOL CAMPUS

5.2. MARKET CENTER

5.3. INDUSTRIAL AREA

5.4. HOSPITAL

6. PUBLIC SPACE PATTERNS

Establish the character of the crucial public realm…

6.1. PLACE NETWORK

6.2. WALKABLE STREETSCAPE

6.3. MOVABLE SEATING

6.4. CAPILLARY PATHWAY

7. BLOCK AND PLOT PATTERNS

Lay out the detailed structure of property lines…

7.1. SMALL BLOCKS

7.2. PERIMETER BLOCK

7.3. SMALL PLOTS

7.4. MID-BLOCK ALLEY

8. STREETSCAPE PATTERNS

Configure the street as a welcoming place…

8.1. STREET AS ROOM

8.2. TERMINATED VISTA

8.3. STREET TREES

8.4. STREET FURNISHINGS

9. BUILDING PATTERNS

Lay out appropriate urban buildings…

9.1. PERIMETER BUILDING

9.2. ARCADE BUILDING

9.3. COURTYARD BUILDING

9.4. ROW BUILDING

10. BUILDING EDGE PATTERNS

Create interior and exterior connectivity…

10.1. INDOOR-OUTDOOR AMBIGUITY

10.2. CIRCULATION NETWORK

10.3. LAYERED ZONES

10.4. PASSAGEWAY VIEW



SECTION II:

PATTERNS OF MULTIPLE SCALE


11. GEOMETRIC PATTERNS

Build in coherent geometries at all scales…

11.1. LOCAL SYMMETRY

11.2. SMALL GROUPS OF ELEMENTS

11.3. FRACTAL PATTERN

11.4. FRAMING

12. AFFORDANCE PATTERNS

Build in user capacity to shape the environment…

12.1. HANDLES

12.2. CO-PRODUCTION

12.3. FRIENDLY SURFACES

12.4. MALLEABILITY

13. RETROFIT PATTERNS

Revitalize and improve existing urban assets …

13.1. SLUM UPGRADE

13.2. SPRAWL RETROFIT

13.3. URBAN REGENERATION

13.4. URBAN CONSOLIDATION

14. INFORMAL GROWTH PATTERNS

Accommodate “bottom-up” urban growth…

14.1. LAND TENURE

14.2. UTILITIES FIRST

14.3. DATA WITH THE PEOPLE

14.4. INCREMENTAL SELF-BUILD

15. CONSTRUCTION PATTERNS

Use the building process to enrich the result…

15.1. DESIGN-BUILD ADAPTATION

15.2. HUMAN-SCALE DETAIL

15.3. CONSTRUCTION ORNAMENT

15.4. COMPLEX MATERIALS



SECTION III:

PATTERNS OF PROCESS


16. IMPLEMENTATION TOOL PATTERNS

Use tools to achieve successful results…

16.1. FORM-BASED CODE

16.2. ENTITLEMENT STREAMLINING

16.3. NEIGHBORHOOD PLANNING CENTER

16.4. COMMUNITY MOCKUP

17. PROJECT ECONOMICS PATTERNS

Create flows of money that support urban quality…

17.1. TAX-INCREMENT FINANCING

17.2. LAND VALUE CAPTURE

17.3. EXTERNALITY VALUATION

17.4. ECONOMIES OF PLACE AND DIFFERENTIATION

18. PLACE GOVERNANCE PATTERNS

Processes for making and managing places…

18.1. SUBSIDIARITY

18.2. POLYCENTRIC GOVERNANCE

18.3. PUBLIC-PRIVATE PLACE MANAGEMENT

18.4. INFORMAL STEWARDSHIP

19. AFFORDABILITY PATTERNS

Build in affordability for all incomes…

19.1. INTEGRATED AFFORDABILITY

19.2. COMMUNITY LAND TRUST

19.3. MULTI-FAMILY INFILL

19.4. SPECULATION TAX

20. NEW TECHNOLOGY PATTERNS

Integrate new systems without damaging old ones…

20.1. SMART AV SYSTEM

20.2. RESPONSIVE TRANSPORTATION NETWORK COMPANY

20.3. AUGMENTED REALITY DESIGN

20.4. CITIZEN DATA